The following are some common landforms or relief features that can be represented on map by using contour lines.

  1. Valleys: are lowland between two highlands. Valleys are represented by V- shaped contour lines with the apex of the V- shape pointing towards the highland. When a valley contains water, it is called a river valley but when it contains no water, it is called a dry valley
  2. Spur: are projection of highlands into low ground. That is the V-shape points to the lowland spurs separate one valley from another and the contour numbering decreases outward.
  3. Conical Hill: are usually circular in shape and become smaller and smaller towards the centre
  4. Round top: hill are contours showing round top hills that are circular but do not taper to a points. The inner most circle of contour is fairly large
  5. Isolated Hill: is a hill which stands apart or is far removed from other hills or highlands. It may either be round or conical in shape
  6. Knoll: is an isolated peak of few metres high, associated with a highland.
  7. Ridge: is a strip of highland which is elongated and narrow. The contour run almost parallel to each other
  8. Col or Saddle: is a stretch of lowland which separates two highland areas on a ridge, two peaks are usually separated by a col. There is no much difference between a cola and a saddle. The only difference is that the saddle is wider than the col
  9. Pass or Gap is also a col but is found at lower parts of highland. A pass separates two highlands but at lower level. A pass is always a col, but a col is not always a pass. A col becomes a pass when it is used or likely to be used as a route way, eiher for footpath, road or railway…

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