Lesson Note on English Language SS3 First Term
SCHEME OF WORK
WEEK 1: VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IN CULTURE
WEEK 2: ORAL INTONATION PATTERN- RISING AND FALLING TONE IN STATEMENTS
WEEK 3: READING COMPREHENSION
WEEK 4: ORAL CONSONANT CLUSTERS
WEEK 5: THE SCHWA AS THE FINAL UNSTRESSED SYLLABLE
WEEK 6: ENGAGING IN MEANINGFUL DIALOGUE ON ANY GIVEN SUBJECT MATTER
WEEK 7: ARGUMENTATIVE TOPICS, COMPLEX SENTENCE STRUCTURES AND SUMMARIZING TIPS
DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN BRITISH AND AMERICAN SPELLINGS OF COMMON WORDS
English Language Lesson Note For SS3 (First Term)
Below are the 2022 complete SS3 First Term English Language Lesson Note
What is Vocabulary Development?
Vocabulary Development can be defined as the process through which human beings acquire words right from infancy. This process typically starts with the babbling of sounds which is associated with babies. Over time, this shifts towards meaningful speech patterns as the babies grow. And by age one, most babies are able to produce their first words. Meanwhile, as you may well know, most infants used their early formative years to build to build up their vocabularies. This is always a gradual and even slow process.
Further Explanation: Vocabulary Development in Culture
In order to build their vocabularies, infants begin by learning about the meanings associated with words. This is referred to as mapping problem, which is all about how infants are able to correctly attach words to referents. They learn this by mere practice- communicating with family members who teach them how to relate with society, and with friends too. As a matter of fact, friends have been noted as playing very vital roles in the vocabulary formation process. This is because in their interactions with peers, children have the opportunity to learn about unique conversational roles.To learn more, click here
What is Oral Intonation Pattern?
Oral Intonation Pattern is variation of spoken pitch that is used for a range of functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing. Oral Intonation Pattern is important in English Language because speaking and understanding the language is not just about using correct grammar and vocabulary. Native English speakers know this all too well considering how they convey meaning in their sentences with pitch.
There are two types of oral intonation patterns and these are the Rising, Falling and Full-flat tones. Read below to see exactly how these two intonation patterns are best used in sentences-
ASKING QUESTIONS FOLLOWS TWO PATTERNS.
Rising Voice at the End of a Question
If the question is a yes / no question, the voice rises at the end of a question.
Do you like living in Portland?
Have you lived here a long time?
Did you visit your friends last month? To learn more, click here
What is Reading Comprehension?
Reading comprehension is as the level of understanding of a text/message. This understanding comes from the interaction between the words that are written, and how they trigger knowledge outside the text/message. Comprehension is a “creative, multifaceted process” dependent upon four language skills: phonology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Proficient reading depends on the ability to recognize words quickly and effortlessly. It is also determined by an individual’s cognitive development, which is “the construction of thought processes”. Some people learn through education or instruction and others through direct experiences.
There are specific traits that determine how successfully an individual will comprehend text, including prior knowledge about the subject, well-developed language, and the ability to make inferences. Having the skill to monitor comprehension is a factor: “Why is this important?” and “Do I need to read the entire text?” are examples. Lastly, is the ability to be self-correcting to solve comprehension problems as they arise.
Summary- Answering Questions by Picking out Topic Sentences
A topic sentence is a sentence that captures the meaning of the entire paragraph or group of sentences. It tells what the passage is mainly about. In other words, a topic sentence summarizes the entire message in every good paragraph ever written. Therefore, when you are required to read, comprehend and then answer questions on a essay during an examination, it does help to identify the topic sentences in said essay as that would assist you. Below are some of the tips for picking out topic sentences. To learn more, click here
What are Consonant Clusters?
Consonant Clusters are consonants which have no intervening vowels. In other words, Consonant Clusters are groups of consonants with no vowels between them. In English, for example, the groups /spl/ and /ts/ are consonant clusters in the word splits. The longest possible cluster in English is three consonant sounds at the start, such as ‘splash’, and four at the end, as in ‘twelfths’.
It is important to note that Consonant Clusters cause problems for learners whose first language does not allow so many consonants together without intervening vowel sounds.
Example of Consonant Clusters
The tongue twister ‘The sixth twisty crisp’ has several consonant clusters in it, making it difficult to pronounce.
Composition: Expository Writing
Expository writing is a type of writing that is used to explain, describe, give information, or inform. The text is organized around one topic and developed according to a pattern or combination of patterns. The writer of an expository text cannot assume that the reader or listener has prior knowledge or prior understanding of the topic that is being discussed. Since clarity requires strong organization, one of the most important mechanisms to improve skills in exposition is to improve the organization of the text. The patterns shown below are frequently used to create an expository essay. Additionally, more than one pattern may be used within an expository essay.
To learn more, click here
What is a Conjunction?
A conjunction is the part of speech that serves to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. The common conjunctions — and, but, for, or, nor, yet, and so — join the elements of a coordinate structure.
Types of Conjunctions
1. Subordinating Conjunction: A Subordinating Conjunction is a conjunction that introduces a dependent clause, joining it to a main clause. Also called a subordinator. Most subordinating conjunctions are single words (e.g., because, before, when). However, some subordinating conjunctions consist of more than one word (e.g., as long as, except that).
Common Subordinating Conjunctions
in order that
so that To learn more, click here
Understanding the Schwa
The reduced vowel sound called schwa is the most common vowel sound in spoken English. Schwa is a quick, relaxed, neutral vowel pronunciation very close to a ‘short u’ /ʌ/. The purpose of schwa is to allow unstressed syllables to be said more quickly so the main beats of spoken words are easier to place on the stressed syllables.
Schwa does not have an exact and standard pronunciation. Due to the near-identical pronunciation of schwa and short u, many dictionaries merge the transcription of the two sounds and strictly use /ə/. Separate symbols are retained here to indicate whether a vowel sound falls on a stressed or unstressed syllable.
Schwa occurs in two different circumstances:
- in an unstressed syllable of a multi-syllable word
- as a reduced vowel sound in a function word. To learn more, click here
What is a Dialogue?
Dialogue (also spelt as dialog in U.S. English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange. It can also be defined as a focused and intentional conversation, a space of civility and equality in which those who differ may listen and speak together.
How to Engage in meaningful Dialogue on any Given Subject Matter
1. Deep listening: In its most simple form, deep listening derives from the conscious choice to listen. It involves quietening the voice in our heads so that we can hear the true story of the person to whom we are listening. As we listen to understand their whole story we literally stay quiet and just listen. In exercises that we conduct on listening, people often report that they are amazed at how much they can hear when they know that all they have to do is listen. Instead of readying him/herself for when it is their turn to speak, the listener focuses instead on understanding the [current] speaker. Deep listening can occur anywhere, anytime. It could be with a team member while walking down a corridor. It might be with a customer in a busy department store or on the telephone. It might even be with our own partners! Imagine the difference that enhanced listening could make in that domain! The common element in all listening examples is the genuine choice to listen. It is both powerful and important if deep listening is to occur. To learn more, click here
In essay writing or during debates, argumentative topics typically requires the student to first thoroughly investigate a topic by collecting or generating evidence and evaluating said evidence in order to establish a position on the topic albeit in a concise and logical manner. It is of uttermost importance that every student master the rudiments and skills of effective argumentation; hence the need for argumentative topics.
Arguing Given Topics effectively on selected Argumentative or Expository Topics
Play fair: It’s important to avoiding upsetting your opponent during an argument; that is if you truly wish to have an civil argument. Resolve that no matter how upset he or she makes you, you will not say the one thing you know would push the argument over the edge.
Attack ideas, not the person they’re attached to: When you argue with someone, you should remember to only attack that person’s ideas, not the person themselves. That means you shouldn’t call the person stupid for thinking what they think, and you shouldn’t devolve to attacks on their physical appearance either. To learn more, click here
British English is more popular in Nigeria compared to American because of our colonial heritage. As a matter of fact, for academic purposes, Nigeria officially speaks and write British. Yet, some people (especially the youth) often confuse British and American English by using them together even in the same sentences. The truth however is that there are major differences between Standard British English and Standard American English especially in the areas of spelling, vocabulary and pronunciation.
Here is an overview of the main differences between British and American spellings: To learn more, click here