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2022 Geography Lesson Note for Second Term SS2

SS2 Second Term Geography Lesson Note 

 Scheme of Work









SS2 Second Term Geography Lesson Note 


Below are the 2022 complete SS2 Second Term Geography Lesson Note 


Week 1

Topic: Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources


  1. Definition of renewable and non-renewable resources
  2. Advantages of renewable and non-renewable resources
  3. Disadvantages of renewable and non-renewable resources

Natural resources are useful to human beings, but when they are abused or mismanaged could have an adverse effect on man and his environment.

Resources are classified into:

  • Renewable resources are resources that have cycles and as such, are readily available for man’s use. This type of resource is much more desired able to use because often a resource is renewed so fast that it will have been generated by the time it is used up. Examples are solar energy, wind energy, trees, plants, water e.t.c. To learn more, Click here 

Week 2

Topic:  Environmental Problems (Hazards)


  1. Definition of environmental Problems
  2. Factors of environmental Problems cause effects and control

Definition of Environmental Problems

Environmental problems or hazards are disasters which affect lives and properties as a result of the action of man and another natural phenomenon. Environmental hazards have causes and effects. They can be controlled

Factors affecting Environmental Hazards

Forms of environmental hazards are:

  1. DeforestationThis is the destruction of natural forests by the indiscriminate felling of lumberable trees


  • Cutting of trees for timber
  • Cutting down trees for crop cultivation.  To learn more, Click here 

Week 3

Topic: Agriculture


  1. Definition
  2. Benefits of Agriculture
  3. Problems of Agriculture
  4. Solution of Agricultural Problems

Agriculture is the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals for man’s use. Agriculture can be defined as the art and science that deals with the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals for man’s use

Benefits of Agriculture

  1. Provides food for man and animals
  2. Provides employment
  3. It is a means of foreign exchange
  4. It provides raw materials for the industry.  To learn more, Click here 

Week 4

TopicTransportation in Nigeria


  1. Definition of transportation
  2. Modes of transportation

Definition of Transportation

Transportation is the movement of people, goods and commodities from one place to another.

Modes of Transportation

There are 5 major modes of transportation in Nigeria namely:

  • Human portage and the use of animal
  • Water Transportation
  • Land Transportation
  • Air Transportation.  To learn more, Click here 

Week 5

TopicManufacturing Industries


  1. Definition of Manufacturing Industries
  2. Characteristics of manufacturing industries
  3. Classification of industries
  4. Factors affecting the location of industries

Definition of Manufacturing Industries

The manufacturing industry is defined as the turning of raw material into new products by mechanical or chemical processes at home (cottage) or in the factory

Characteristics of manufacturing industries

  1. Most manufacturing industries are concentrated in few locations, especially urban centres
  2. Manufacturing industries emphasize the production of consumer goods
  3. Manufacturing industries require hard labour.  To learn more, Click here 

Week 6

Topic: Manufacturing Industries. For a previous note on “Manufacturing Industries” see:


  1. Problems of Manufacturing Industries
  2. The solution to Industrial Problem
  3. Importance of Industries

Problems of Manufacturing Industries

  1. The lack of sufficient raw materials available to industries hinders large-scale of production
  2. Insufficient capital
  3. People depend on foreign goods
  4. Large-scale poverty makes people have low purchasing power
  5. Inadequate power supply
  6. Due to the high demand for foreign goods, local goods produced by local industries are not patronized
  7. Corruption and negligence of duty lead to poor management of industries.  To learn more, Click here 

Week 7

Topic: Measurements of direction and bearing


  1. The major Cardinal points
  2. Measurement of direction
  3. Measurement of bearing

Direction: the direction of one place to another is expressed by the means of compass points or cardinal point

There are four compass or cardinal points which include North, South, East and West. For better accuracy, the measurement of directions of eight cardinal points are used. These are North, North-East, North-West, South, South-East, South-West, East and West. There are also 16 cardinal points.  To learn more, Click here 

Week 8

Topic: Representation of relief


  1. Definition of Relief
  2. Physical features
  3. Contour representation of land forms

Definition of Relief

Relief of an area refers to the position and character of the highlands and lowlands. The methods of representing such relief on maps include the following:

1. Contour are lines drawn to join places of equal heights, levels or altitudes. The sea level is taken as the starting point in all measurements in metres of feet. The height of a particular point is written in line; Contour Interval in a particular map, contours are equal intervals

  1. Form Lines are lines drawn on a map like contours but are based on estimators. They are not accurate as contours and they are represented in broken lines
  2. Contour layering as an aid to visual impression, the space between contours are often coloured or tinted. Different shapes of colours are used to denote differences in height, green is used for lowlands, yellow and brown are for highlands and white is for snow-capped peak. Water bodies such as seas are represented with blue and the deeper the sea, the darker the blue colour
  3. Hill shading is the method in which only one contour is used but the intensity (thickness) of the colour tone depends on the steepness of the hill slope. That is the deeper shade representing it becomes
  4.   Hatchures are short line drawn down the slope in the direction of the steepest gradient. The steeper the slope, the heavier the lines which are used.  To learn more, Click here 

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