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Classwork Series and Exercises {Basic Science- JSS2}: Joints



Joint can be defined as the spot or point where two or more bones meet. Joints can be found at the shoulder, wrist, knee, elbow, wrist, ankle, skull and fingers. It is made up of the following components;

·      Bones

·      Ligaments

·      Synovial membrane

·      Cartilages

·      Tendon

Functions of the Component Parts of a Joint

·      Ligament: This is tough whitish tissues which connects bones together at a joint.

·      Cartilage: This is a thick flexible tissue which covers the surface of bones at the joint. It acts as a shock absorber.

·      Synovial Membrane: This is the layer next to the cartilage. It surrounds the synovial fluid.

·      Synovial Fluid: This is a colloidal liquid between the joint which reduces friction or lubricates the joint.

Classes of Joint

1.    Movable Joint: It is the joint where movement is made possible, e.g. socket and hinge joint.

2.    Immovable Joint: It is the joint whereby movement is not possible, e.g. suture joint which is found at the skull.

Types of Joint

1.    Hinge Joint: It is the joint that allows easy movement and it is only found at the elbow and knee.

2.    Ball Joint: It allows all directional movement in several directives. It is found at the pelvic and shoulder region.

3.    Suture Joint: It is made up of flat bones entering one another. It is normally found in the skull.

4.    Pivot Joint: It is the joint where movements backward, forward and sideways are made possible.

5. Gliding Joint: It is the type of joint which occurs when a bone slides on another bone e.g. ankle and wrist.

Tests and Exercises

1.  The components of joints are (a) bone cartilage, tendon, Ligament (b) Cartilage chitin, muscle fibre, tendon (c) tendon, synovial capsules, cuticle, and fibro elastic. Answer: Bone cartilage, tendon, ligament

2.  Elbow can be found in which type of joint? (a) ball and socket joint (b) Suture joint (c) Pivot joint (d) Hinge joint. Answer: Hinge joint.

3.  Ankle can be found in which of the following types of joint? (a) Pivot joint (b) Gliding joint (c) Ball and socket joint (d) None of the above. Answer: Gliding joint.

4.  Movable joints include one of the following (a) Suture and pivot joint (b) Socket and hinge joint (c) Gliding and suture joint (d) pivot and gliding joint. Answer: Socket and hinge joint.

5. The type of joint that allows easy movement is called a. gliding joint b. ligament c. hinge joint d. suture joint. Answer: hinge joint

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