What is Reproduction

Reproduction means the act of bringing to life young ones that are of the same species. In other word, reproduction is the creation of a new individual or individuals from previously existing individuals.

Types of Reproduction

There are two types of reproduction. These are:

Asexual Reproduction: Only one organism divides to form new ones.

Sexual Reproduction: Two gametes (male and female) fuse together to form a zygote which later develops to a young one.

What is ovulation?

Ovulation is a phase in the menstrual cycle. It occurs at about day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle. Specifically, ovulation is the release of the egg (ovum) from a woman’s ovary.

Each month, between days 6 and 14 of the menstrual cycle, follicle-stimulating hormone causes follicles in one of a woman’s ovaries to begin to mature. However, during days 10 to 14, only one of the developing follicles forms a fully mature egg. At about day 14 in the menstrual cycle, a sudden surge in luteinizing hormone causes the ovary to release its egg and begin its 5-day travel through a narrow, hollow structure called the fallopian tube to the uterus. As the egg is traveling through the fallopian tube, the level of progesterone, another hormone, rises, which helps prepare the uterine lining for pregnancy.

What is conception?

Conception maybe defined as the moment at which the egg is fertilized by a sperm. In other word, it is referred to as the moment that an early stage embryo implants in the lining of the uterus and becomes attached to its mother

How does conception occur?

Conception occurs when a sperm cell from a fertile man swims up through the vagina and into the uterus of a woman and joins with the woman’s egg cell as it travels down one of the fallopian tubes from the ovary to the uterus.

As the fertilized egg continues to move down the fallopian tube, it begins to divide into two cells, then four cells, then more cells as the division continues. About a week after the sperm has fertilized the egg, the fertilized egg has traveled to the uterus and has become a growing cluster of about 100 cells called a blastocyst.

The blastocyst then attaches itself to the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). This attachment process is called implantation. Release of the hormones estrogen and progesterone causes the endometrium to thicken, which provides the nutrients the blastocyst needs to grow and eventually develop into a baby.

As cells continue to divide, some developing into the baby, others forming the nourishment and oxygen supply structure called the placenta. Hormones are released to signal the body that a baby is growing inside the uterus. These hormones also signal the uterus to maintain its lining rather than shedding it. This means that a woman does not have a period that month, which may be the first way a woman knows she is pregnant.

 Signs of Pregnancy

The following are the early signs of pregnancy:

  1. Fatigue (feeling tired)
  2. Nausea and vomiting
  3. Breast swelling and tenderness
  4. Frequent urination
  5. Food craving and sense of smell
  6. Darker nipples
  7. Feeling sick
  8. Spotting and cramping
  9. Missed period

Pre-natal Care

Prenatal care refers to the regular medical and nursing care recommended for women during pregnancy.

Women who suspect they may be pregnant should schedule a visit to their health care provider to begin pre-natal care. Pre-natal visits to a health care provider include a physical exam, weight checks, and providing a urine sample. Depending on the stage of the pregnancy, health care providers may also do blood tests and imaging tests, such as ultrasound exams. These visits also include discussions about the mother’s health, the infant’s health, and any questions about the pregnancy.

Preconception and prenatal care can help prevent complications and inform women about important steps they can take to protect their infant and ensure a healthy pregnancy. With regular prenatal care women can:

  • Reduce the risk of pregnancy complications.
  • Reduce the infant’s risk for complications.
  • Help ensure the medications women take are safe.

Normal Pregnancy and Types of Child Delivery

A normal pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks and is grouped into three trimesters.

The basic methods or types of delivery are (1) normal (2) cesarean

  • A normal birth or normal delivery refers to the natural way through which a mother can give birth to a baby through the birth canal (vagina). It is the natural way women were designed to produce and is also known as the vaginal delivery.
  • A cesarean section, also called a C-section, is a surgical procedure performed if a vaginal delivery is not possible. During this procedure, the baby is delivered through surgical incisions made in the abdomen and the uterus.


Lets see how much you’ve learnt, attach the following answers to the comment below

  1. When the follicle ruptures releasing the egg into the abdominal cavity, this is called (a) ovulation (B) conception (c) bursting (d) mutation
  2. When the fertilized egg becomes implanted in the uterus, it is now called a _____. (a) zygote (b) follicle (c) blastocyst (d) embryo
  3. A fertilized egg that becomes multicellular is called this (a) gamete (b) blastocyst (c) gonad (d) ovulation
  4. This is attached to the uterus and transports nutrients from the mother to the baby via the umbilical cord. (a) amniotic sac (b) cervix (c) placenta (d) ureter
  5. The time a mother carries a baby from conception to birth (a) implantation (b) pregnancy (c) conception (d) placenta

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