Agricultural Science, JSS 2, Week 1
Topic: Husbandry of Selected Crops
- Meaning of Crop Husbandry
- Selected crops (maize)
Crop Husbandry simply means careful management of the establishment, growth and harvesting of crops
- Cereals – Maize,Botanical Name: Zea mays
- Clearing of land
- Stumping should be done
- Land should be harrowed
- Ridges can also be prepared
- It is propagated by seed
- May be planted manually
- May be planted mechanically
Climatic requirement: It requires a temperature of about 20Oc – 30Oc. Rainfall should be between 75cm – 150cm annually
Soil requirement: Well drained loam and silt loam with fine tilt.
Planting date: Early planting type is planted between March and April. Late maize can be planted anytime depending on the rate of rainfall in the north and south.
- 25 – 20kg maize seed per hectare.
- 2 -3 seeds per hole
- 25cm along the row and 75cm between rows
- 30cm x 60cm along and between the rows respectively.
- 90cm x 60cm at two seeds per hole
Supplying: This is the process of filling the in-germinated spaces
Thinning: Removal of weak or excess plants per hole in a farmland e.g. thin maize one or two per hole.
- Apply N.P.K 15:15:15 at about 200kg or 4 bags per hectare.
- Apply farmyard /poultry dropping/organic manure by side dressing or by broadcast method.
- Weed farmland regularly
- Use manual Methods e.g. hoe and cutlass
- Use chemical or mechanical method
Maturity period: 3 – 4 months or 90 – 120 days after planting
- Maize can be harvested either green or dry
- Mostly harvested when dry
- Harvested on a small scale by plucking the cobs and on a large scale by machines such as corn-picker
- We can also use sickle to harvest maize
- Store above fire-place.
- Store in air-tight container
- It can also be stored in flour form
- About 3,500kg/hectare for improved varieties
- About 600 to 1,200kg/hectare for local varieties
- Processing: The husks can be removed from the cobs
- Shelling should be done to remove grains from the Cobs
- Winnowing is done to remove dirt from the grain.
Pest of Maize
- Stem Borer: It is a field pest which larva destroys young stems
- Maize Weevil: It is both filed and store pest. The adult and larva destroy the grains
- Grasshopper: It destroys the vegetative parts of the plant
Control of Pests
- Plant resistant variety
- Early planting
- Fumigate the store with BHC Powder or phostorin tablets
- Early harvesting
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