Agricultural Science, JSS 2, Week 1

Topic: Husbandry of Selected Crops


  1. Meaning of Crop Husbandry
  2. Selected crops (maize)

Crop Husbandry simply means careful management of the establishment, growth and harvesting of crops

  1. Cereals  – Maize,Botanical Name: Zea mays

Land Preparation

  1.  Clearing of land
  2. Stumping should be done
  3. Land should be harrowed
  4. Ridges can also be prepared


  1. It is propagated by seed
  2. May be planted manually
  3. May be planted mechanically

 Climatic requirement: It requires a temperature of about 20Oc – 30Oc. Rainfall should be between 75cm – 150cm annually

Soil requirement: Well drained loam and silt loam with fine tilt.

Planting date: Early planting type is planted between March and April. Late maize can be planted anytime depending on the rate of rainfall in the north and south.

 Seed Rate

  1. 25 – 20kg maize seed per hectare.
  2. 2 -3 seeds per hole


  1. 25cm along the row and 75cm between rows
  2. 30cm x 60cm along and between the rows respectively.
  3. 90cm x 60cm at two seeds per hole

 Cultural Practices

 Supplying: This is the process of filling the in-germinated spaces

Thinning: Removal of weak or excess plants per hole in a farmland e.g. thin maize one or two per hole.

 Fertilizer application

  1.  Apply N.P.K 15:15:15 at about 200kg or 4 bags per hectare.
  2. Apply farmyard /poultry dropping/organic manure by side dressing or by broadcast method.


  1.  Weed farmland regularly
  2. Use manual Methods e.g. hoe and cutlass
  3. Use chemical or mechanical method

Maturity period: 3 – 4 months or 90 – 120 days after planting


  1.  Maize can be harvested either green or dry
  2. Mostly harvested when dry
  3. Harvested on a small scale by plucking the cobs and on a large scale by machines such as corn-picker
  4. We can also use sickle to harvest maize


  1.  Store above fire-place.
  2. Store in air-tight container
  3. It can also be stored in flour form


  1. About 3,500kg/hectare for improved varieties
  2. About 600 to 1,200kg/hectare for local varieties
  3. Processing: The husks can be removed from the cobs
  4. Shelling should be done to remove grains from the Cobs
  5. Winnowing is done to remove dirt from the grain.

Pest of Maize

  1. Stem Borer: It is a field pest which larva destroys young stems
  2. Maize Weevil: It is both filed and store pest. The adult and larva destroy the grains
  3. Grasshopper: It destroys the vegetative parts of the plant

Control of Pests

  1. Plant resistant variety
  2. Early planting
  3. Fumigate the store with BHC Powder or phostorin tablets
  4. Early harvesting

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