Computer Science JSS3 First Term

Week 4

Topic: DataBase

DATABASE

A database is a collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval and uses of data. In a manual database, it can be recorded on paper and stored in a filing cabinet. While in a computerized database, it is stored in an electronic format on a storage media. A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images. 

A database is an organized collection of data. It is the collection of schemes, tables, queries, reports, views and other objects. The data is typically organized to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies.

CONCEPT OF DATABASE

The concept of database is simply described as the terminologies of database such as

  1. FIELD
  2. RECORDS
  3. FILE
  4. KEY

FORMS OF DATABASE

The following are the forms of database

  1. FLAT FILE DATABASE: flat file database store data in plain text file. Each line of the text file holds one record with field separated by diameters such as command or tabs.
  2. HIERARCHICAL DATABASE: in hierarchical database records are linked in a tree like structure and each record type has only one owner. E.g an order is owned by only one customer
  3. RELATIONAL DATABASE: This is a collection of data items organized is a set formally. Described table from which data can be accessed or reassemble in many different ways without having to recognize the database table. Each table contains one or more data categories in column. Each role contains unique types of data for the categories defined by columns.

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

A database management system (DBMS) is a computer program (or more typically, a suite of them) designed to manage a database, a large set of structured data, and run operations on the data requested by numerous users. Typical examples of DBMS use include accounting, human resources and customer support systems.

APPLICATION AREAS OF DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

1. Banking: For customer information, accounts, and loans, and banking transactions.

2. Airlines: For reservations and schedule information. Airlines were among the first to use databases in a geographically distributed manner – terminals situated around the world accessed the central database system through phone lines and other data networks.

3. Universities: For student information, course registrations, and grades.

4. Credit card transactions: For purchases on credit cards and generation of monthly statements.

5. Telecommunication: For keeping records of calls made, generating monthly bills, maintaining balances on prepaid calling cards, and storing information about the communication networks.

6. Finance: For storing information about holdings, sales, and purchases of financial instruments such as stocks and bonds.

7. Sales: For customer, product, and purchase information.

8. Manufacturing: For management of supply chain and for tracking production of items in factories, inventories of items in warehouses / stores, and orders for items.

9. Human resources: For information about employees, salaries, payroll taxes and benefits, and for generation of paychecks

EXAMPLES OF DATABASE APPLICATIONS

The following are examples of database applications:

  • computerized library systems
  • automated teller machines
  • flight reservation systems
  • computerized parts inventory systems
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