English Language SS2 Second Term
Grammar: Sentence types
Oracy: Phonetic symbols (Vowels)
A. Sentence Patterns
Sentence can be defined as phrase with finite verb & subject and predicate or subordinate & main clause.
Sentence Subject – Predicate
The patterns include:
- SV- Subject Verb
- SVO- Subject Verb Object
- SVC- Subject Verb Complement
- SVOO –Subject Verb Object (Direct and indirect Object)
- SVOA- Subject Verb Object Adjunct (adverb).
- SVA- Subject Verb Adjunct
- Mrs Ibu came
- Ifeoma wept
- He bought a new bag
S V O
- Ekene killed a cow
S V O
- Miss anna sings beautifully.
S V C
- Mr Johny is a doctor
S V C
- Adekunle bought a car for mama G
S V O O
- The twins gave him a gift
S V O O
- The boys ate the food instantly.
S V O A
- The party kicked off immediately
S V A
- She works slowly.
S V A
Types of Sentences
These are the various types of sentences.
- Simple sentences.
- Compound sentences
- Complex sentences.
A sentence is said to be simple when it contains one main clause and a finite verb. It can also be said in another way as consisting of a subject (Np) and a predicate (vp).
- Dammy works hard .
- Our English teacher is very smart.
A sentence is said to be a complex sentence when it contains one main clause which is very important and at least one subordinate or dependent clause which is less important. The clauses in a complex sentence are not of equal status, one of it is the main clause and the other is dependent.
- We shall start singing when the celebrant arrives.
- Tolani went to the party although she was not invited.
A compound sentence consists of two independent clauses joined together by co-ordinators like but, and, or, yet and while. Each part of the compound sentence, is called a clause. Each clause is independent because it can stand on its own. A clause on the other hand is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate which is the definition of a simple sentence. It therefore means that a compound sentence consists of two simple sentences joined together by co-ordinating conjunctions.
Forms of Sentences
1. Declarative Sentence
A declarative sentence states a fact or an argument and ends with a full stop. In a declarative sentence, the subject normally precedes the verb.
I like long walks, especially when they are taken by people who annoy me.
A banker is a fellow who lends you his umbrella when the sun is shining, but wants it back the minute it begins to rain. 2. Interrogative Sentence Interrogative sentence is the type of sentence that asks a question. Interrogative sentences are typically marked by inversion of the subject and predicate: that is, the first verb in a verb phrase appears before the subject. An interrogative sentence ends with a question mark.
How did it get so late so soon?
Where are my children?
Are my kids cute or do they make people uncomfortable?
3. Imperative Sentence
A type of sentence that gives advice or instructions or that expresses a request or command. (Compare with sentences that make a statement, ask a question, or express an exclamation) An imperative sentence typically begins with the base form of a verb.
When we get to the zoo, do not give the animal any fruit.
We’re going into the attic now, folks. Keep your accessories with you at all times.
4. Exclamatory Sentence
Exclamatory sentence type of sentence that expresses strong feelings by making an exclamation. With the appropriate intonation, other sentence types (especially declarative sentences) can be used to form exclamatives. An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation point.
Oracy : Vowels – phonetic symbols
|ɪ||kit, bid, hymn, minute|
|e||dress, bed, head, many|
|ɒ||lot, odd, wash|
|ʌ||strut, mud, love, blood|
|ʊ||foot, good, put|
|iː||fleece, sea, machine|
|eɪ||face, day, break|
|aɪ||price, high, try|
|uː||goose, two, blue, group|
|əʊ||goat, show, no|
|ɪə||near, here, weary|
|eə||square. fair, various|
|ɔː||thought, law, north, war|
|ʊə||poor, jury, cure|
|ɜː||nurse, stir, learn, refer|
|ə||about, common, standard|
|i||happy, radiate. glorious|
|u||thank you, influence, situation|
Maybe you don’t like the ending of a story, maybe you can write a better one! Before we ask you to attempt to write a story, let us look at some of the features that most stories have.
The plot is the story line – what happens . Typically, a story follows this pattern
Situation – describe explicitly, or implied. (Here, it is obvious the situation is that of a wife married to a doctor working in a hospital)
Problem – (Here, the problem is a husband who is massively overworked – and a devoted wife frantically worried about him.)
Response – (In this story, the doctor refuses to see the danger signs and collapses through over work)
Outcome/Conclusion/Moral – (A funeral, a widow’s grief – and a replacement doctor. And the moral or message?)
A short story does not leave much room for detailed characterisation, but a skilled writer like Cyprian Ekwensi can still give a vivid picture of the main characters. There is usually a conflict of some kind between the characters.
The most interesting stories include different types of writing – dialogue, description and narrative.
There are several different kinds of narrative depending on the writer’s point of vies. The story could be written in the first person – so event are seen from the real or imagined view of the story – teller – ‘I’. O r they may be written from the point of view of one of the characters; or they may be written by an unseen, all knowing story-teller who plays no part in the story. From whose point of view is this story told?
A short story may also include flashbacks – moves back to happier times perhaps. Can you find an example of a flash back in Part 1. What tense is used?
In a very long story, in a novel, there may be several settings, and the work may begin with a clear statement of where and when the story is taking place. In a play, the setting is often clearly stated, if only to help the actors. For example:
Scene 1: A late afternoon. Brother Jero’s compound near the beach.
In a short story, the setting often emerges gradually as the story develops. In the story in this unit, clearly, the setting is a large over-worked hospital in modern-day Nigeria, using such advanced medical expertise and techniques that it attracts observers from all over the world.
The theme is the message the writer wants to convey to the reader. To identify the theme, it may be helpful to analyse the main characters, and to identify what conflict exists and how it is resolved. From this, it should be possible to draw a generalisation, a conclusion or a moral.
So here you have the main elements most commonly found in any short story. Now it is your turn! Make up your own short story.
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