Government SS1 Second Term

Topic: ELECTIONS

Contents:

1. Elections

  • Functions/Merits of Elections
  • Demerits of Elections
  • Types of Elections

1 (a) Direct Election

  • Advantages of Direct Election
  • Disadvantages of Direct Election
  • Types of Election in Direct Election

i. Secret Balloting : Merits and Demerits

ii. Public Voting: Merits and Demerits

1 (b) Indirect Election: Merits and Demerits

2. Election College

  • Merits and Demerits of Election College
  • By-Election
  • Referendum

ELECTIONS

Elections are defined as the act of electing candidates to represent the people of a given country in the parliament, the executive and possibly into other arms of government as stipulated in the constitution of the particular country. An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.

FUNCTIONS/MERITS OF ELECTION

  1. It serves as a change of government
  2. It gives elected representative the elected right to rule
  3. There’s free choice of leaders into different political offices
  4. It fosters democracy
  5. It educates the electorate about their political right
  6. It confers legitimacy on elected government in power

DEMERITS OF ELECTION

  1. Election can divide the country into antagonizing groups with different camps opposing one another
  2. There is wastage of funds
  3. Election may involve rigging and forging of results.
  4. It encourages marginalization

TYPES OF ELECTION

DIRECT ELECTION

This involves the electorate casting their votes directly in an election for candidates of their choice.

ADVANTAGES OF DIRECT ELECTION

  1. There is equality of votes
  2. It is democratic
  3. It reflects the popular choice of the people
  4. It is easy to operate

DISADVANTAGES OF DIRECT ELECTION

  1. Inadequate security at polling centers/stations
  2. It encourages violence and victimization of political opponents
  3. Corrupt electoral officers may ensure the success of a particular candidate or party
  4. It is characterized by malpractices and result may be falsified to favor a particular candidate

TYPES OF VOTING IN DIRECT ELECTION

SECRET BALLOTING: This is where voters cast their votes secretly. The voters alone makes the decision in the voting exercise.

MERIT OF SECRET BALLOTING

  1. It is democratic
  2. It is universal
  3. It gives a sense of direction
  4. It is free from intimidation
  5. There is freedom of choice

DEMERITS OF SECRET BALLOTING

  1. It is difficult to comprehend
  2. It is time consuming
  3. It is expensive to operate

PUBLIC VOTING: This is done openly or publicly, the voters will have to line up according to their political parties and the counting of voters/votes is done by the presiding officer.

MERITS OF PUBLIC VOTING

  1. Simple to operate
  2. Less expensive
  3. It is a public responsibility
  4. There is sufficient enlightenment
  5. It reduces electoral malpractices

DEMERITS OF PUBLIC VOTING

  1. Government can exert pressure upon the electorate to vote for government officials
  2. The voters may be compel to vote for a particular person
  3. Voters are exposed to intimidation and harassment
  4. It can induce violence
  5. There may be manipulation of the result

INDIRECT ELECTION

This is the type of election in which a legislature or local government unit will form the body known as electoral college and they will have to vote for the candidate of their choice on behalf of the citizens

MERITS OF INDIRECT ELECTION

  1. It involves less violence
  2. There is absence of rigging
  3. They are well informed i.e. members of the electoral college have the opportunity of examining the candidate before voting

DEMERITS OF INDIRECT ELECTION

  1. It does not allow the ordinary citizens to vote
  2. It encourages bribery and corruption
  3. It is undemocratic
  4. There is issue of victimization

ELECTION COLLEGE

This is a body of elected representative of local government units who in turn elect people into political offices. The relevance of electoral college came up when no candidate was able to win by absolute majority in the first general election that was conducted several years ago in the country.

MERITS OF ELECTORAL COLLEGE

  1. Electoral malpractices is minimized because only few people vote
  2. Voting could be done and completed within a very short period and on time too
  3. The system produces a winner easily because the candidate scores with a simple majority
  4. The system is not costly but simple to operate

DEMERITS OF ELECTORAL COLLEGE

  1. People’s right of choice are denied them because, they did not take part in the second election
  2. Wrong candidate: The system might not produce the right candidate
  3. It can lead to bribery and corruption which will influence the outcome of the election

BY-ELECTION

This is an election that takes place to fill a vacant elective post as a result of disqualification, resignation or death of the individual holding that office. The election takes place in that constituency, where there has been a vacancy.

RUN-OFF ELECTION OR SECOND BALLOT

When none of the candidates wins the election by absolute majority in a general election, another election would be conducted. In this final election, only the candidate with the highest votes are allowed to contest.

PRIMARY ELECTION

This involves the political parties presenting candidates for any election in a country. It is an election conducted within a political party to choose credible candidates that can adequately represent the interests of the party in any election

REFERENDUM

This is a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ vote of the people particularly on law in  a given political system. Referendum ensures that laws not in conformity with the popular will are not passe.

For more class notes, visit: https://passnownow.com/classwork-support/