Home Economics JSS3
Topic: FOOD PRESERVATION AND STORAGE
Food Preservation Methods
A. FOOD PRESERVATION
Food preservation is the caring or treating food in a way that it will keep in good condition for a long period of time or for future use. Food preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi (such as yeasts), or other micro-organisms into food. Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food to stop or slow down food spoilage, loss of quality, edibility, or nutritional value and thus allow for longer food storage.
REASONS FOR PRESERVING FOOD
- Some foods are seasonal that is they are plenty at a time and not available at other periods
- In some farming communities, food is produced in abundance and need to be preserved for sales in cities or during scarcity
- Preservation is also necessary to prevent food spoilage.
- Save money by buying in bulk and seasonally.
- Convenience – Ready to serve in minutes.
B. FOOD PRESERVATION METHODS
- Solar or sun dry: This is a very effective way of preserving some vegetables e.g maize, beans, yam e.t.c
- Smoking: Foods such as fish, meat and some root crops can be preserved by smoking
- Freezing: This is a method of preserving food in which it is put in refrigerator so that it becomes frozen very quickly e.g meat, fish, tomatoes e.t.c
- Canning: This is preservation by sealing food inside an air tight can and applying heat e.g. fruits and vegetables
- Other forms of preservation are Bottling, Pasteurization, Salting, Heating e.t.c
TYPES OF FOOD WE STORE:
- Non-perishable foods or dry foods
- Perishable foods or fresh foods
Non- perishable foods or dry foods: Are those foods that do not spoil easily. These can be keep for a long time if stored properly e.g flours, rice, sugar, cereals e.t.c
Perishable foods or fresh foods: Are those foods that can spoil easily e.g fresh meat, fish, vegetables, fresh tomatoes e.t.c
C. FOOD STORAGE
Food storage involves keeping preserved or purchased food in safe condition and suitable facility for use.
Storing of food has several main purposes:
- Storage of harvested and processed plant and animal food products for distribution to consumers
- Enabling a better balanced diet throughout the year
- Reducing kitchen waste by preserving unused or uneaten food for later use
- Preserving pantry food, such as spices or dry ingredients like rice and flour, for eventual use in cooking
- Preparedness for catastrophes, emergencies and periods of food scarcity or famine
FOOD STORAGE FACILITIES
Proper food storage requires the use of good storage facilities. Storage facilities include plastic containers, food cupboards, larders, shelves, rack, refrigerators and deep freezer.
A refrigerator is any appliance which removes heat from things (e.g foods) and keeps them cold. Refrigerator is the process of keeping food cold, often in a refrigerator
TEMPERATURES IN THE REFRIGERATOR APARTMENTS
- The Freezer compartment: This is ice-cold. It is for storing very perishable foods
- The Top-most shelf: This is nearest to the freezer. It is suitable for cooked food
- Middle shelf: This is next to the vegetable crisper. It is suitable for drinks, raw foods, bread e.t.c
- Vegetable crisper: This is the lower apartment. It is suitable for raw-fruits and vegetables.
- Door of the refrigerator: Storage spaces for such items such as eggs butter, cheese e.t.c
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