Home Economics JSS3
What is Immunization?
Toys for Children
Laundering Baby’s Clothes
A. WHAT IS IMMUNIZATION?
Immunization prevents children against diseases. This is the process by which an individual’s immune system becomes fortified against disease causing agents (known as the immunogen). Immunization is done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination. Vaccines against microorganisms that cause diseases can prepare the body’s immune system, thus helping to fight or prevent an infection. It is given to children in infant welfare clinics; immunization centers and hospitals.
This means the different times when the baby should be given the different types of immunization. The expanded programs on immunization (E.P.I) is a health programme designed to protect children of 0-2 years of age from six killer diseases.
TYPES OF IMMUNIZATION
- Hepatitis B
- D.T.P – Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis
- HIB- Hemophilic Influenza type b
- Rotavirus (diarrhea and vomiting)
- Pneumococcal conjugate (pneumonia and Otitis media)
- POLIO VACCINE: This is for protection against polio
- SMALL POX VACCINE: This is given by injection to protect against small pox
- MEASLES VACCINE: This is given by injection to protect against measles. It is given at 9 months
- C.G (Bacillus Calmetle Guerin): this protect against tuberculosis. It is given at birth
COMMON AILMENTS IN CHILDREN
- COLIC: Is caused by cramps in the intestines of the baby. A baby who has colic cries hard
- CONSTIPATION: This involves the passing of hard stool (at long intervals) or not passing it at all. Constipation could be common with bottle fed babies
- DIARRHEA: This is a sudden increase in the number of bowel movements, especially if they are loose and watery.
- NAPPY RASH: This occurs when a child has rashes in the nappy.
- DEHYDRATION – This occurs when a baby occurs use or lose more fluid than is taken in, and the body doesn’t have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions.
B. TOYS FOR CHILDREN
As a baby grows, he enjoys playing with things. It is therefore important to provide babies with toys that suit their age level.
USES OF TOYS
- Toys keep children busy
- Toys help them to learn
- Toys help them to exercise their muscles
- Toys help them to express them in different ways
- Toys make children happy
POINTS TO CONSIDER WHEN CHOOSING TOYS FOR CHILDREN
- Buy strong, simple and durable toys
- Buy toys that are interesting to the child
- Buy toys that a child would like to play with for a long time.
- Avoid buying toys with tiny, loose parts which the child can swallow easily
- Buy toys that are easy to clean
- Buy toys that suit the age of the child
- Buy soft and portable toys
- Make sure they have no metal or sharp edges that can injure the child
WEANING THE BABY
Weaning is a process of helping a baby get used to foods other than mother’s breast milk
C. LAUNDERING BABY’S CLOTHES
It is necessary to launder clothes for the following reasons:
- It makes them become clean
- It makes the clothes last long
SELECTION OF MATERIALS NEEDED FOR LAUNDRY
- BUCKETS: These could be of plastic. They are required for soaking the baby’s napkins
- SOAPS AND DETERGENTS: They are necessary for removing dirt and some stains
- WATER: This is necessary in large quantities for washing and rinsing baby’s clothes
- STAIN REMOVERS: Simple household bleach for baby’s napkins
- PEGS: They are necessary for hanging clothes to dry
- PRESSING IRON: This is necessary for ironing the clothes after drying
- IRONING BOARD: The equipment is useful as an aid to good ironing
STEPS IN LAUNDERING BABY’S CLOTHES
The first step in the laundering of baby’s clothes in the removal of stains
- Soaking: The baby’s clothes to be washed are soaked in water to remove the surface dirt
- Washing: Soap and water are used when washing, clean water should always be used for washing the clothes.
- Rinsing: After the dirt and soap have been washed off the clothes, the clothes are rinsed until they have no more soap and are clean.
- Drying: Pegs are used for hanging washed clothes on a clothe line outside the house. This enables the clothes to dry under bright sunshine.
- Ironing: This is done to give the clothes a good finish. It is also used to remove some minor grease on the clothes.
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