Children And Women Trafficking

Contents:

  • Child Trafficking
  • Women Trafficking
  • Trafficking Techniques
  • What Children are Trafficked For?
  • Child Sex Exploitation
  • Factors Responsible for Trafficking

Child Trafficking

A child is a person under the age of 18 years.

Child Trafficking is a form of human trafficking and is defined as the “recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, and/or receipt” of a child for the purpose of exploitation.

Trafficking implies that someone has organised the movement of a child with the immediate or ultimate aim of the child’s exploitation. This could involve a transaction where someone receives payment or a benefit to agree to a child being exploited.
Women Trafficking
Women trafficking is the trade of females, most commonly for the purpose of sexual slavery, forced labor, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal. Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim’s rights of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation.
Trafficking Techniques

  • Local Contacts – Traffickers enlist the help of local persons and villagers to identify vulnerable families.
  • Direct Sale – Women and children are sold to traffickers by parents or other family members.
  • Deceit – Unscrupulous agents deceive parents and lure women and girls with false promises of well-paid work in cities or marriages to rich husbands.
  • Debt Bondage – Traffickers provide economic incentives and financial loans to parents which bind their children into sex-slavery or other exploitative forms of labor. Debt terms are often ill-defined.

What Children are Trafficked For?

 Children are trafficked for:

  • Child sexual exploitation or child pornography
  • Prostitution
  • Slavery or practices similar to slavery
  • Removal of organs/organ trade
  • Forced early marriage
  • Illicit International adoption
  • Recruitment as child soldiers
  • domestic servitude such as cleaning, childcare, cooking
  • Forced labour in factories or agriculture
  • Criminal activities such as pick-pocketing, begging of alms, transporting drugs, working on cannabis farms, selling pirated DVDs, bag theft.

Trafficking for Organ Trade

Trafficking of organs is a form of children or women trafficking. It can take different forms. In some cases, the victim is compelled into giving up an organ. In other cases, the victim agrees to sell an organ in exchange of money/goods, but is not paid (or paid less). Finally, the victim may have the organ removed without the victim’s knowledge (usually when the victim is treated for another medical problem/illness – real or orchestrated problem/illness). Migrant workers, homeless persons, and illiterate persons are particularly vulnerable to this form of exploitation. Trafficking of organs is an organized crime, involving several offenders:

  • the recruiter
  • the transporter
  • the medical staff
  • the middlemen/contractors
  • the buyers

Trafficking for organ trade often seeks kidneys. Trafficking in organs is a lucrative trade because in many countries the waiting lists for patients who need transplants are very long.

Child Sex Exploitation

  • “The use of girls and boys in sexual activities remunerated in cash or in kind (commonly known as child prostitution) in the streets or indoors, in such places as brothels, discotheques, massage parlors, bars, hotels, restaurants, etc.”
  • “The trafficking of girls and boys and adolescents for the sex trade”
  • “Child sex tourism”
  • “The production, promotion and distribution of pornography involving children”
  • “The use of children in sex shows (public or private)”

Factors Responsible For Trafficking

Poverty: Poverty and lack of educational and economic opportunities in one’s hometown may lead women to voluntarily migrate and then be involuntarily trafficked into sex work.

Globalization: As globalization opened up national borders to greater exchange of goods and capital, labor migration also increased. Less wealthy countries have fewer options for livable wages. Globalization and the rise of Internet technology has also facilitated sex trafficking. Online classified sites and social networks have been under intense scrutiny for being used some traffickers in facilitating sex trafficking and sex work in general. Traffickers use explicit sites and underground sites  to market, recruit, sell, and exploit females.

Domestic Violence: Domestic violence is one of the most widespread violations of women’s rights in the world. Due to limited legal mechanisms and support for abused women in many communities, women often see few opportunities to end the abuse. Research suggests that victims of domestic violence may also be at risk of becoming victims of trafficking when they seek work abroad in order to leave the abusive situation.

Maltreatment: Some children who are being maltreated and not taken care of ted to run away from the homes in which this happens. Most of them are deceived and end up in the hands of traffickers.

Social and Cultural Practices: Many societies and cultures devalue, abuse and exploit women and girls, creating perilous living conditions for these women.  With little opportunities of upward mobility and with little value placed on women and girls, they are more vulnerable to human trafficking.

Escape from War and conflict: Armed conflicts can lead to massive forced displacements of people. War creates large numbers of orphans and street children who are especially vulnerable to trafficking. Their families have either passed away or are fighting a war, complicating child-rearing.

Ignorance/Illiteracy: It is said that knowledge is power. Those who are not aware of the ills and effects of human trafficking are more susceptible to fall prey to the traffickers than the others. Information on trafficking empowers people to be on guide and take measures to avoid being a victim.

Bad Economic Situations

Working Conditions of Trafficked Persons

  • Conditions of work and treatment often involve slavery-like practices and prison-like environments.
  • Physical and sexual abuse is common. 
  • Trafficked persons have almost non-existent access to health and medical facilities. 
  • Trafficked persons work long hours, with little to no rest or recreation. 
  • Earnings are withheld with prolonged indebtedness to traffickers