Lesson Note on Agricultural Science JSS2 First Term

 

 First Term Scheme of Work for JSS2 Agricultural Science

WEEK  1&2  SOIL COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES

WEEK 3 FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

WEEK 4 SITING OF FARM AND LAYOUT OF FARM STRUCTURE

WEEK 5 FARM MACHINES

WEEK 6 CROP PROPAGATION

WEEK 7 CULTURAL PRACTICES

WEEK 8 CULTURAL PRACTICES – PLANTING OPERATIONS

WEEK 9-11 CULTURAL PRACTICES – POST-PLANTING OPERATIONS

JSS2 First Term Agricultural Science Lesson Note 

Below are the 2022 Complete JSS2 First Term Agricultural Science Lesson Note

Week 1 & 2

Topic: SOIL COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES

Contents:

What is Soil?

Soil Composition

Importance of Soil

A. What is Soil?  

Soil is the loose or thin layer on the surface of the earth on which the plants and animals lives. It is a loose combination of inorganic and organic materials. Soil is the upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or dark brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles.

Soil is considered to be the “skin of the earth” with interfaces between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere of Earth, and biosphere. Soil consists of a solid phase (minerals and organic matter) as well as a porous phase that holds gases and water. Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three-state system. To learn more, Click here

Week 3

Topic: FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

Content:

Farm Structures

They are simple erections on the farm site which make farm operations easier and more efficient. Farm structures are common agricultural structures associated with agricultural use such as growing and harvesting crops, and raising livestock.

These structures may include:  Barns  Cold storage for crops grown and raised on-site  Riding arenas (riding academies)  Slaughterhouses  Hay or feed storage  Livestock shelter or shade structures  Feed or hay shelter structures  Loafing sheds  Poultry coop  Farm equipment storage.  To learn more, Click here

Week 4

Topic: Siting of Farm and Layout of Farm Structure

Introduction

Farm Structures and Buildings is the home of farm animals and a production centre. They may be constructed with blocks, mud, zinc, thatch, wood or aluminium. Farmsteads may include

  • living houses
  • barns
  • pens
  • storage houses
  • sheds/paddocks
  • processing shed
  • workshops

Factors to be Considered When Siting Farm Structures

  1. Water supply – Water supply must be constant and regular
  2. Topography – Shape and position of the land. A flat level area or land should be selected
  3. Accessibility – Facilities should be located within walking distance.
  4. Climate – Structures and buildings should be located in a way that there will be adequate ventilation
  5. Soil types – They should be sited on poor soils but the soil should not be clayey to avoid water logging
  6. Foresight – A farmer must have foresight ie. he should look at the possibility of expansion.  To learn more, Click here

Week 5

Topic: Farm machines

Farm Machinery

Farm machinery are different type of machines and implements used in farming operations. These machines and implements are;

  1. Tractors
  2. Bulldozer
  3. Planters
  4. Sprayer
  5. Sheller
  6. Ridger
  7. Ploughs
  8. Harrows
  9. Harvesters.  To learn more, Click here

Week 6

Topic: CROP PROPAGATION

Introduction

Crop propagagtion is the process by which plants are multiplied as independent units. There are two types of propagation – sexual and asexual.

Sexual Propagation

In this type of propagation, seeds are used for planting. A seed is a developed ovule which is formed as a result of union of the male and female gametes in a process called fertilization. Seeds maybe planted insitu (directly into the field) e.g. Okra, Maize, Cowpeas or they may be raised in the nursery before transplanting them into the field e.g tomato, pepper, tobacco, cocoa etc.  To learn more, Click here

Week 7

Topic: Cultural Practices

Introduction

The aim of the farmer is to get maximum yield from his farm operations. For this reason, he adopts a number of measures to get the best out of the soil.

Pre-planting Operations

This include all operations carried out in the farm before planting is done e.g. selection of site, bush clearing, stumping, farm layout, ploughing, harrowing, ridging.

  1. Selection of Site – It is necessary to choose a good site. A flat well drained sandy-loamy soil should be chosen. This is ideal for most food crops. 
  2. Bush Clearing – This is the removal of bushes through Mechanical or Chemical means. Mechanically through manual cutting of bushes with crude implements eg Hoes and Cutlasses or through the use of machines. Chemically through the use of Herbicides (chemicals used to kill weeds) e.g Paraquat.
  3. Stumping – The removal of perennial roots and tree stumps present in the soil. It is an energy consuming operation.  To learn more, Click here

Week 8

Topic: Cultural Practices – Planting Operations

Introduction

These are operations carried out while planting is done. Planting operations include spacing, seed selection, seed rate and planting.

Spacing – This refers to the distance between two plants. The distance between one plant and another along the sameridge or row is called Intra or Within the Row spacing while the distance between one plant and another on different ridges or rows is called inter or between row spacing. Different crops have different spacing depending on whether they branch extensively or not. Correct spacing encourages high yield.

Seed rate – This refers to the quantity of seeds or planting material required to cover the planting of an area of land. To determine the sed rate of a piece of land, the area of the land, the actual spacing and the number of seeds per hole must be known.  To learn more, Click here

Week 9 – 11

Topic: Cultural Practices – Post Planting Operations and Harvesting

Introduction

Post planting operations in agriculture refers to all the other process that take place after planting. This includes watering, weeding, applying fertilizers, pruning, weeding etc

  1.  Thinning and Supplying – Thinning is a term used in agricultural sciences to mean the removal of some plants, or parts of plants, to make room for the growth of others. Selective removal of parts of a plant such as branches, buds, or roots is typically known as pruning. Supplying can be defined as the process of planting so many crops for the nursey stage of pre-planting process in other to make available crops for planting.
  2.  Weeding – This is the systematic removal of weeds. A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, “a plant in the wrong place”. Weeding should be done t intervals, 3 times per season. 
  3. Rouging – This refers to the act of identifying and removing plants with undesirable characteristics from agricultural fields. Rogues are removed from the fields to preserve the quality of the crop being grown.  To learn more, Click here