Government Lesson Note for First Term SS2



Week One: Electoral Process

Week Two: Election

Week Three and Four: Electoral System

Week Five: Public Opinion

Week Six and Seven: Public Administration

Week Eight: Local Government

Week Nine: Pre-colonial Administration in Nigeria I

Week Ten: Pre-colonial Administration in Nigeria II

Week Eleven: Revision

Week Twelve: Examination


Lesson Note on Government SS2 First Term 

Below are the 2022 complete Government lesson notes for SS2 First Term

Week One Topic: Electoral Process


This is defined as a political right of qualifying adult (male and female) citizen of a given

country to vote and be voted for in a political election. In politics, franchise is the right

conferred on an individual to vote.

Types of Franchise

There are two main types of franchise

1. Limited or restricted franchise

2. Unlimited or universal adult suffrage

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Week Two: Elections


Election is defined as the act of choosing candidates to represent the people of a given

country in the parliament, the executive and possibly into other areas of government as

stipulated in the constitution of that country. For example, in U.S.A, judges of the lower

courts are elected.

Types of election

A. Direct election: It involves the voters casting their votes directly in a political election for

candidates of their choice and that will represent them either in the executive or legislature

without interference. To learn more, click here.


Week Three and Four: Electoral System


An electoral system may be defined as a process or method through which the people of a

given country elect their representatives into different political offices or positions in

government. It also includes the conditions and processes for the nomination of candidates

for elective posts including procedure and rules of election.



1. Single-member Constituency and Single vote: This system is referred to as “first past

the post” or simple majority system. A candidate who  has the highest number of

votes cast win the election, Britain, USA, Canada e.t.c. are examples of this system

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Week Five: Public Opinion


This  is an aggregate of the individual views, attitudes, and beliefs about a particular topic,

expressed by a significant proportion of a community. This is a belief, values and attitudes

which are commonly held and expressed by majority of the people by giving of public issues.

Formation of public opinion

1. Through election

2. Through mass media

3. Through pressure group and political parties

4. Symposium and lecture

5. Individual influence

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SS2 First Term Government Lesson Note

Week Six and Seven: Public Administration


The civil service is a body or department in the executive arm of government. It has the duty

of assisting the political executive in the planning and implementation of government

policies. The Director-General (Permanent Secretary) is the administrative head and the

accounting officer of a ministry.

Features of the civil service

1. Impartiality: Civil servants are expected to be fair and just to any government in


2. Permanence: it is an institution that does not change with the government.

3. Neutrality: Workers in the service are not expected to engage themselves in partisan

politics unless they resign their appointments.

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Week Eight: Local Government


Local government may be defined as a government established through an Act at the local

level to deal with specific matters as it affects them. It can also be defined as the sub-organ of

the central government established to provide for the needs of the people at local level. Under

the 1963 republican constitution, local government authorities were created mainly to deal

with matters of local concern, e.g. markets, feeder, roads, motor parks, etc. The essence of

local government creation is to involve local participation in the affairs of the country.

Powers of the local government

1. Making of bye-laws: The legislative arm of local government is involved in making

of bye-laws.

2. Power to punish offenders: They can punish those who violate the laws made.

3. Imposition of levy: They can impose levy on the people for some specific reasons.

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SS2 First Term Government Lesson Note

Week Nine: Pre-colonial Administration in Nigeria I


Historical background: the Fulani took over the political leadership of the Habe (Hausa)

states in the early 19th century. The Jihad that proceeded this occupation was seen as religious

one as well as political. Othman Dan Fodio led the Fulani Jihad and took over the political

leadership of the Hausa and established the Sokoto caliphate with outstanding centralized

political system of government. He introduced a new system of selecting and appointing

rulers described as Emirs to rule the caliphate. Each of the emirs owed allegiance to Dan

Fodio and his two representatives at Gwandu and Sokoto.

Structure of Hausa/Fulani Traditional Political System

1. The Emirate: the caliphate was divided into emirates and each was headed by an

Emir. He had the responsibility of making laws, enforcing them and maintaining

peace and order in his emirate. He was expected to administer the emirate in

accordance with the provisions of the Islamic and sharia laws.

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Week Ten: Pre-colonial Administration in Nigeria II


The political system of Oyo Empire

The Oyo kingdom was a vast empire divided into different provinces, is the popular and

outstanding of all the empire or kingdom in the Yoruba land. The Oyo empires were able to

influence issues in other areas like; Dehomey (republic of Benin), Ekiti, Ijebu, Ife etc.


Political structure/Organization

Political structure /Organization

1. Political head: The Alaafin was seen as the political head of the empire. He was chosen

by Oyomesi (seven hereditary kingmakers of the empire). It was claimed that he can

only appear three times a year in public and that was only during some historic

festivals. The administration of the empire involved the Alaafin, assisted by the

Aremo, the Basorun (prime minister) and the Oyomesi played a very key role in the


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Week Eleven: Revision

This week, we would be doing a revision of all that we learned during the term.

Week Twelve: Examination

Afterwards, we would write an examination, which would test our knowledge of what has

been taught so far.

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