To remember something new, it must be clearly impressed in the brain. It requires time and effort to learn new concepts. To imprint new information into the brain, it’s important to schedule periodic study sessions and constantly review information in your mind.

Here are some general principles of memory improvement:

1. Attention (Concentration)

When studying, it’s more effective to concentrate on one subject or concept at a time.

2. Interest

It’s difficult to concentrate on uninteresting subjects. Most people do not struggle concentrating on personally significant issues. Therefore, when studying uninteresting concepts, personalise the subject. This is known as ego involvement. If it’s not possible to personalise a subject, develop another motivation for learning it. It could be information useful for your future career, something friends are interested in, or you might be uninterested because you lack confidence in your ability to understand it. Regardless of interest, you still must understand boring concepts to earn good grades.

Many students develop interest in boring subjects once they understand them. If you struggle understanding a new concept, take time to analyse and associate it with familiar concepts. Once you understand it better, your interest will more than likely be increased.

3. Confidence

You must be confident to learn and retain new concepts. Do not be pessimistic if you struggle. Never hesitate to ask for help. Once you begin grasping new concepts, your confidence will increase.

4. Starting Right

Even if it’s time consuming, focus on mastering new concepts. Many concepts build upon others. Do not rush learning.

5. Selection

Before study sessions, select the most significant topics to review. For example, to understand certain principles in physics, you must have a solid understanding of maths. Additionally, do not waste time reviewing understood concepts. Rather, spend time studying unfamiliar or unclear concepts.

6. Understanding

There are multiple types of memorisation. Rote memorisation, a method where information is reviewed until it can be recalled verbatim, is often employed by students learning to multiply and memorise equations. Understanding-based memorisation is employed by students who must understand generalised concepts, such as theories. It’s easier to retain information that is related to familiar concepts. While studying, relate recently acquired knowledge with concepts you’ve already mastered. Always strive to have a well-rounded understanding of what you’re studying.

7. Building Background

It’s easier to develop an in-depth understanding of a concept and relate to other topics once you’ve developed thorough background knowledge on a subject. It’s difficult to fully comprehend isolated concepts. Experts are able to connect new information with current knowledge. In other words, the best way to enhance your understanding of a specific subject is to develop well-rounded knowledge. Acquiring background knowledge is also a great way to increase interest in a subject.

8. Organisation

While processing new information, look for ways to effectively organise it. It’s common for students to experience information overload. To remedy this, look for ways to classify information in much the same way it’s organised in textbooks. For example, if you were learning about organs in a Biology class, it is much easier to remember the 12 organ systems than the 78 organs making up these systems. Once you’re able to associate organs with their respective systems, it will be much easier to remember names and functions. As your study progresses, you’ll be able to link supplementary concepts with underlying ones, which will enable you to retain more information.

9. Whole and Parts

Briefly summarise a textbook chapter prior to reading it to develop a generalised understanding of what you’ll be learning. Then, breakup your reading into sections.

10. Recitation

After you’ve read a chapter, take a few minutes to re-summarise it. This method is one of the most active learning strategies students can employ. Simultaneously, you’ll be testing your understanding of the subject. Auditory learners are encouraged to read aloud. This method should also be used if you do not understand what you’re reading.

11. Notetaking

Visual learners are encouraged to take detailed notes since they learn better through generating visual mental images. Auditory learners are encouraged to do likewise. When taking notes, write clear sentences in your own words. Taking notes is more effective than underlining text. Students frequently underline excessive amounts of text, which can lead to confusion. After reading a chapter in a textbook, review lecture notes.

12. Review

It’s most effective to conduct reviews immediately after learning a new concept. Spend more time reviewing material near the middle of a chapter since you’ll probably remember content near the beginning and end of chapters.

13. Spaced Practice or Distributed Practice

Do not cram before a test. Rather, organise multiple study sessions spaced out between a period of weeks or days. You’ll more than likely remember information periodically reviewed during the course of a few weeks.

14. Over-learning

Excessive study often leads to over-learning. Although this may seem negative, students who’ve over-learned a concept often remember what they’ve studied with little effort. Students should employ over-learning when studying complex or difficult to understand concepts. Do not spend too much time reviewing understood content.

15. Sleeping Over It

If possible, study just prior to sleeping. However, this is not recommended if you’re tired or ill. Newly learned concepts are more easily recalled after sleeping since retroactive interference occurs, but this is not the case for everyone.