Topic: Physical Environment and Climatic Condition


  1. Meaning of Physical Environment
  2. Weather
  3. Element of weather
  4. Climate
  5. Differences between weather and climate
  6. Seasons in Nigeria
  7. Vegetation

Physical Environment is the part of the human environment that includes purely physical factors (as soil, climate, water supply)

Physical environment means the natural and man made features of an area. The physical environment involves the physical things such as lakes, rivers, mountains, valley etc.


Weather is the atmospheric condition of a place at a particular time. It is the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.

Element of Weather

Changes in the condition of the atmosphere happens as a result of changes in the following elements which may also be called elements of weather. Elements of weather are:

  • Humidity
  • Wind
  • Sunshine
  • Air pressure
  • Cloud
  • Temperature
  • Rainfall

Climate: Climate can be defined as the average weather condition of a place for a period of many months or years

Differences between weather and climate

  1. The weather is studied for a short period while the climate is studied for a long period
  2. The weather involves the observation of an element of the atmosphere condition while the climate involves the observation of the average weather condition of a place

Seasons in  Nigeria

Wet Season: The wet season starts early April and lasts till October. There is heavy rainfall and humidity during this period.

Dry/ harmattan season: There is a short dry season in August, which is followed by a long dry season often called harmattan in Nigeria. It last from November to March.

Vegetation: This is the kind of plants which can be found in an area. It varies from different places because of the changes in climate condition

Types of Vegetational belts/The Nigeria forest is divided into

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