Topic: Contour representation of landforms

The following are some common landforms or relief features that can be represented on map by using contour lines.

  1. Valleys: are lowland between two highlands. Valleys are represented by V-shaped contour lines with the apex of the V- shape pointing towards the highland. When a valley contains water, it is called a river valley but when it contains no water, it is called a dry valley
  2. Spur: are projection of highlands into low ground. That is the V-shape points to the lowland spurs separate one valley from another and the contour numbering decreases outward.
  3. Conical Hill: are usually circular in shape and become smaller and smaller towards the centre
  4. Round top: hill are contours showing round top hills that are circular but do not taper to a points. The innermost circle of the contour is fairly large
  5. Isolated Hill: is a hill which stands apart or is far removed from other hills or highlands. It may either be round or conical in shape. To learn more, Click here

Week 3

Topicworld population


  1. Factors affecting the growth population
  2. Pattern of world population

Factors affecting the growth of Population

Factors affecting the growth of population can be classified broadly into physical and human factors

(a) Physical factors

(i)            Climate: areas with favourable climate like U.S.A, China etc do attract population whle areas of unfavourable or harsh climate like desert and Polar Regions d not attract population

(ii)           Availability of water: areas where water is available, both human and agricultural purposes like U.S.A, India etc attracts the population

(iii)         Relief: lowlands and river valleys like Nile delta, India etc and lowland plateaux attracts population while high mountains and rugged hills like rockies, Andes etc repel population. To learn more, Click here

Week 4

Topic:Problems of rapid population growth


  1. Problems of rapid population growth
  2. Advantages of High Population Densities
  3. Disadvantages of high population densities
  4. Advantages of low population densities
  5. Disadvantages of low population densities

Problems of rapid population growth

  1. High rate of infant mortality is certain in a growing population because of social pressure
  2. High mobility will also result in a rapidly growing population
  3. Rapid population growth is always accompanied by food shortages
  4. The pressure on the low lean social services may led to low life expectancy
  5. Malnutrition and diseases
  6. Overpopulation always breeds vices such as armed robbery, prostitution etc. To learn more, Click here

Week 5

Topic: Settlement


  1. Meaning of Settlement
  2. Favourable condition for siting a settlement
  3. Factors affecting population growth

Meaning of Settlement

Settlement is a collection of buildings with people living in them. It is centre of human activities and it consists of houses, communication network, roads, tracks, railways etc. It could be one house, a village, a town or a city.

Favourable conditions for siting a settlement

  1. There must be adequate and dependable water supply for man use
  2. The soil must be fertile to produce agricultural activities
  3. Such lands must be lowland and well drained for easy erection of buildings
  4. The presence of good roads, railways, airport etc
  5. The area should be well protected against invading enemies. To learn more, Click here

Week 6

TopicTypes of settlement. For previous note on “Settlement” see:


  1. Types of Settlement
  2. Types of rural settlement
  3. Functions of rural settlement
  4. Urban settlement
  5. Types of urban settlement
  6. Functions of urban settlement
  7. Classification of settlement according to pattern or shape.
  8. Characteristics of linear settlement.
  9. Reasons for linear settlement

There are two types of settlements. These are (a) Rural settlements (b) Urban settlements

(a)          Rural Settlement

  •  A rural settlement is a relatively small area with socially homogenous people that know one another
  •   It could be nucleated, dispersed or linear
  •   They have people with the same cultural background and language
  •   They have few social amenities and the life style is important
  •   They are normally involved in primary activities such as farming, fishing and lumbering To learn more, Click here