JSS2 Second Term Civic Education  Lesson Note 

 Scheme of Work










JSS2 Second Term Civic Education Lesson Note 

Below are the 2022 complete JSS2 Second Term Civic Education Lesson Note 

Week 2 

Topic: Relationship between The Federal, State and Local Governments

Relationship between The Federal, State and Local Governments

The federal, state and local governments are the three arms of government within a country. The country as a large entity is large to administer or rule, so it is divided for easy administration. The federal government controls the whole country. They decide on the area that can become a state because it is central and the overall governance of the country. Currently, Nigeria has 36 states. For easier administration closer to the grassroot, the constitution permits that each state be divided into smaller groups which is called the local government. Their operations are interrelated and interdependent ie all three arms of government. As the federal government depends on the state and local government for smooth running of the nation, so also the local and state governments depend on the federal government for national policies and finance to run. To learn more, click here 

Power to legislate

Nigeria operates a democratic system of government. In each level of government, there is a legislature. The legislature is the body of people nominated and elected to represent a particular area in the local state or federal government. These elected people are found in various house of assemblies. They decide on what should or should not be done. This power to legislate is given to each level of government. In Government, there is legislature, executive and judiciary. The legislative makes the laws, the executive carries it out while the judiciary interprets the law. To learn more, click here 

Week 3 & 4

Topic: The Rule of Law


Law is the whole system of rules that citizens that citizens of a country or place must obey. When people are in a place to avoid conflict through ignorance, there must be law that will guide everyone in that very place. While the rule of law is one of the fundamental principles of all democratic governments. The government cannot operate without the law. Therefore the government and everybody must act or do things according to the law. The rule of law emphasizes equality, impartially and fundamental human rights. The rule of law tells us that every citizen is equal before the law. The law should not be bent because someone is rich or someone is poor. It does not permit impartiality. Some of the benefits of the rule of law as against arbitrary rule are as follows

  1. The law must apply to all citizens. No one must be too big before the law
  2. All accused people must be tried in the open place and not hurriedly done in the secret to favour some people
  3. People are allowed to call witnesses to support their cases. All must be listened to as against the arbitrary judgement
  4. The law is clear before everybody unlike the arbitrary where it is not clear and you cannot challenge it
  5. Punishment for each offence must be clearly stated out. There is no arbitrary bending of judgement to favour a rich man or a person because gratification has been collected from him or her. To learn more, click here 

Week 5

Topic: Protection of Human Rights and the Rule of Law


The role of individuals and groups are very necessary in the protection of human rights and rule of law. If something contrary is happening to an individual or group of people, there should be complaints to the appropriate authority that can help to defend or protect the fundamental human rights of such individual or group.

Representing the affected person in the court – Laws are made to check the excesses of some people who are in government or who feel they are well placed in society. And because they are rich or connected to those in power they also misbehave. A person whose rights are being trampled upon may not have the means of going to court. Such a person must be represented in the court to protect his rights and that of others. A court is a place where people who are aggrieved seek redress. Some causes of human rights violation are as follows:

  1. In some areas where one religion is dominant other people at times are deprived of worshiping God their own way. Fundamental human rights permits freedom of religion. To learn more, click here 

Week 6

Topic: Groups that Assist in Protecting Human Rights of Citizens

In some companies and professions and non-governmental organizations, there are bodies that assist in protecting human rights. Examples are

  • Trade union – The umbrella that bind some workers together
  • NUT – Nigerian Union of Teachers. Teachers within the local, state government and nation as a whole under this trade union. This union stands to protect all human rights violations against his members. Under the same union, a faction either in the local government or the state can call out its people to protest.
  • Student union – Some institutions deliberately introduce policies and programmes that violate human rights in school. It could also have been denied some of their rights. The government may introduce programmes and policies that affect the fundamental human rights of citizens. 
  • Ethnic Associations – For the purpose of unity and cooperation, some ethnic groups form associations. This could be in locations outside their community. So anything that want to stand against such unity or rights in their community, the ethnic association would stand against violation of human rights. To learn more, click here 

Week 7
Topic: Consumer Rights and Responsibilities

Meaning of Consumer Rights

Consumption (or right of the consumer) is the name given to the set of rules emanating from public authorities aimed at the protection of the consumer or user in the market of goods and services, giving and regulating certain rights and obligations. The right of use is not an autonomous branch of the law, but a cross-discipline, with items that fit within commercial law, Civil law and others within the administrative law and procedural law.

The consumption law covers several key aspects of relations between producers and consumers:
1. Contracts of adhesion: prohibits unfair terms that alter the contractual relationship in favour of the supplier of goods and services and tries to ensure that consumers know in advance all the General conditions of the contract which the employer intends to use.
2. Quality of the goods and services offered: minimum requirements.
3. Regulation of advertising and offers to the public.
4. Establishes special procedures for which consumers, associations and public bodies created so that they can defend themselves and prohibit certain abusive practices.
5. Lists a list of infractions by employers and the corresponding penalties imposed by the competent authorities of consumption. To learn more, click here 

Week 8

Topic: Democracy

Ordinarily, democracy is defined as the government of the people for the people and by the people.

It is a system of government whereby people are allowed to exercise their political power by voting in of their leaders at a particular time. 

It is a system of government where the people of the country determines their leaders and have the right to contribute to the development of their country.

Forms of Democracy

  1. Direct democracy: This is an individual freedom; this is where people participate in the governing of the state at intervals. People have liberation without any representation.
  2. Representative democracy: This is also known as indirect democracy; in this form of democracy, some people are elected to represent the masses. Whatever they say would be accepted as the voice of the people.
  3. Constitutional democracy: This form of democracy is based on the laid down principles, the principle serve as the yardstick for the system of government.’ To learn more, click here 

Week 9

Topic: Democratic Institutions

Democratic Institutions and their Functions

  • INEC – Independent National Electoral Commission is the institution being set up to plan, scrutinize people who want to be voted into power and conduct the election to choose the rightful candidates for each contested post. INEC does not belong to any party or group. INEC doesn’t belong to any political party. It is a neutral body so that it can be fair in decision-making. It makes every citizen to know the conditions that qualify anybody to contest election into any post. It makes every citizen to know its rules and regulations  as regards the qualifications of candidates who have showed interest in applying for public office. Everyone has the right to vote and be voted for. But people with questionable character or those having bad personal records are not allowed to contest for responsible positions in the society. The INEC has the power to disqualify a candidate if he or she doesn’t meet the conditions. To learn more, click here 

Week 10

Topic: Pillars of Democracy

Pillars of Democracy

Pillar means a tall upright object used as support. It could also mean a very important part of a system. The pillars on which democracy is standing are as follows:

  1. The fundamental human rights enjoyed by everybody in the nation as a whole include
    – Freedom of movement/association
    – Freedom of religion
    – Freedom to be educated
    – Right to vote and be voted for
  2. Democracy is based on the rule of law
  3. Equality of everybody before the law
  4. The principle of separation of powers where checks and balances are implemented To learn more, click here