Business Studies Lesson Notes JSS 3 Second Term
Scheme Of Work
WEEK 1 REVISION OF LAST TERM’S WORK
WEEK 2 TRIAL BALANCE
WEEK 3 TRADING, PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT
WEEK 4 BALANCE SHEET
WEEK 5 PERSONAL FINANCE
WEEK 6 SHORTHAND PRINCIPLES
WEEK 7 SPEED DEVELOPMENT IN SHORTHAND
WEEK 8 APPLIED KEYBOARDING (PAPER SIZES)
WEEK 9 APPLIED KEYBOARDING (DISPLAY)
WEEK 10 MANUSCRIPT
WEEK 11 KEYBOARD MEMORANDUM
WEEK 12 PERSONAL LETTERS
lesson note on Business studies for JSS3 Second Term
Below are the 2022 business studies lesson notes for JSS 3 Second term
Topic: Revision of Last Term’s Work
Topic: Trial Balance
- Meaning of a Trial Balance
- Uses of trial balance
- Balances that form the trial balance
- Formation of trial balance from ledger
- Identification of balance sheet items on the trial balance
A. Meaning of trial balance
A trial Balance is a list of closing balances of ledger accounts on a certain date and is the first step towards the preparation of financial statements. It is usually prepared at the end of an accounting period to assist in the drafting of financial statements. Ledger balances are segregated into debit balances and credit balances. Asset and expense accounts appear on the debit side of the trial balance whereas liabilities, capital and income accounts appear on the credit side. If all accounting entries are recorded correctly and all the ledger balances are accurately extracted, the total of all debit balances appearing in the trial balance must equal to the sum of all credit balances. To learn more, Click here.
Topic: Trading, Profit and Loss Account
- Meaning of trading, profit and loss account
- Purpose of trading, profit and loss account
- Trading account
- Profit and Loss Account
- Rules for constructing profit and loss account
Meaning of trading, profit and loss account
The account through which annual net profit or loss of a business is ascertained, is called profit and loss account. Gross profit or loss of a business is ascertained through trading account and net profit is determined by deducting all indirect expenses (business operating expenses) from the gross profit through a profit and loss account. Thus profit and loss account starts with the result provided by trading account. To learn more, Click here.
Topic: Personal Finance
- Meaning of Personal Finance
- Sources of finance for individuals
- How to manage personal funds and keep records of expenditure
A. Meaning of Personal Finance
Personal finance defines all financial decisions and activities of an individual or household, including budgeting, insurance, mortgage planning, savings and retirement planning.
Personal finance is the financial management which an individual or a family unit performs to budget, save, and spend monetary resources over time, taking into account various financial risks and future life events. When planning personal finances, the individual would consider the suitability to his or her needs of a range of banking products (checking, savings accounts, credit cards and consumer loans) or investment private equity, (stock market, bonds, mutual funds) and insurance (life insurance, health insurance, disability insurance) products or participation and monitoring of individual- or employer-sponsored retirement plans, social security benefits, and income tax management. To learn more, Click here.
Topic: Shorthand Principles
- Compound Consonants (Kw, GW, Mp, Lr, Rr, and Wh)– Meaning
- Omission of Consonants– Ticks (/)
There are 24 consonants, each consonant representing one single sound. In English language there are so many words which have compound consonants sounds (having more than one consonantal sound). To write these compound consonants, additional consonant strokes have not been provided in Pitman’s shorthand. Some of the existing consonants have been used to represent the compound sounds by adding hooks or by writing them as thick forms, yet ensuring formation of concise, brief and facile outlines. Even to represent medial ‘W’ additional use of semi circle has been made to keep the shorthand outlines as brief as possible.
Topic: Speed Development in Shorthand
- Transcription of dictated passages on:1. Drug Abuse
2. Environmental pollution
Topic: Applied Keyboarding (Paper sizes)
- Types of papers
- Uses of each paper size
- Calculating the number of spaces available on each type of paper size
Paper comes in different sizes. There are names for the different sizes of paper. In different parts of the world, different sizes and names are used. The printing industry offers the use of various paper sizes and types depending on the applied technology and equipment. To learn more, Click here.
Topic: Applied Keyboarding (Display)
- Methods of Display
When displaying work on a typewriter, it should be done in such a way that the end result will be good and pleasing to the eye.
METHODS OF DISPLAY
When centring any line, set the carriage at the centre and then backspace once for each two letters and spaces that the typed line will occupy. The odd letter is ignored. Begin typing at the point to which you have back-spaced. For example, to Centre Account as a heading, AC = 1 space, CO = 2 spaces, UN = 3 spaces.Ignore T which is an odd letter. Try saying the letter and counting at the same time as you backspace. You must note that if the edge of the paper is at 0, the scale point at which the ridge appears, half of that number will be the centre.
- Standard printer’s correction signs
Manuscripts are usually handwritten letters/documents. To understand and read a manuscript, certain signs and abbreviations must be learnt by the person that will type it.
If you write something down in longhand, you write it by hand using complete words and normal letters rather than typing it or using shortened forms or special symbols.
Topic: Personal Letters
- Meaning of Personal Letter
- Layout of Personal Letter
Meaning of Personal Letter
Personal letters are letters written to friends or relations on a personal note. It is a type of letter (or informal composition) that usually concerns personal matters (rather than professional concerns) and is sent from one individual to another.
Personal letters (alongside diaries and autobiographies) have been popular forms of personal communication since the 18th century. But as mentioned below, various innovations over the past several decades have contributed to a decline in the practice of personal letter-writing.
Layout of Personal Letter