Rated 4.8/5 by parents & students


Lesson Note for Second Term SS3








Lesson note on civic education for SS 3 Second Term


Below are the 2022 civic education lesson notes for SS 3 Second term

Week 1

Topic: Democracy


  • Meaning and Characteristics of Democracy
  • Types of Democracy
  • Importance of Democracy
  • Problems of Democracy

Meaning of Democracy

According to Abraham Lincoln, democracy is the government of the people, by the people and for the people.

This is the system of government in which people exercise their political power through the periodic elections of leaders by themselves or their representatives.

The word democracy was traceable to ancient Greek. The word DEMO and KRATIA which form democracy means people and government. To learn more, Click here

Week 2

Topic: Rule of Law


  • Meaning, History, Features and Principles of Rule of Law
  • Importance of Rule of Law
  • Processes of Rule of Law

Meaning of Rule of Law

The rule of law simply means that every citizen must act in accordance with the law. It is the supremacy of the law over every citizen in the political system. It is the legal principle that law should govern a nation. It basically means that the law should apply to everyone in other words; no one is above the law.

The concept of the rule of law was made popular by professor A.V Dicey in his book “enspirit de law” in the year 1885.

History of Rule of Law

The rule of law is the legal principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by arbitrary decisions of individual government officials. It primarily refers to the influence and authority of law within society, particularly as a constraint upon behaviour, including the behaviour of government officials. The phrase can be traced back to 16th-century Britain, and in the following century the Scottish theologian Samuel Rutherford used the phrase in his argument against the divine right of kings.  To learn more, Click here

Week 3

Topic: Problems of Rule of Law


  • Limitations of Rule of Law
  • Solutions to problems of Rule of Law
  • Group Discussion of the Process of Rule of Law

Limitations of Rule of Law

1) Immunity: Immunity is the special right granted to certain individuals in positions of authority which shield them from prosecution while in office regardless of the offence committed. Such people are diplomats, presidents and governors. This is a limitation against the rule of law.

2) Administrative Tribunal: They are set up in some countries to try erring public officers. While ordinary citizens are tried in ordinary courts.

3) Delegated Legislation: Delegated legislation refers to laws and orders promulgated by bodies other than parliaments. This is against the rule of law.

4) Special Courts: In Nigeria, tribunals are set up to try certain corruption cases of public officials. Those tried in this special court seldom felt they do not get a fair hearing (Such as the Oputa panel).

5) Over Crowding of the Court: Cases are delayed sometimes as a result of insufficient judges to handle cases and this result in keeping the accused person for too long. To learn more, Click here

Week 4

Topic: Constitutional Democracy

Meaning of Constitutional Democracy

Democracy is the government of, by, and for the people. It is the government of a community in which all citizens, rather than favoured individuals or groups, have the right and opportunity to participate. In a democracy, the people are sovereign. The people are the ultimate source of authority.

In a constitutional democracy, the authority of the majority is limited by legal and institutional means so that the rights of individuals and minorities are respected. This is the form of democracy practised in Germany, Israel, Japan, the United States, and other countries.

Constitutional democracy is the type of democracy where the powers of the majority are exercised within a framework of the constitution designed to guarantee the majority’s right.

In this type of democracy, how the people are to be ruled and governed is stated in the constitution. Constitutional democracy is the type which operates from and according to the constitution of the states. To learn more, Click here

Week 5

Topic: Advantages and Disadvantages of Constitutional Democracy


  • Key Concepts of Constitutional Democracy
  • Advantages of Constitutional Democracy
  • Disadvantages of Constitutional Democracy

Key Concepts of Constitutional Democracy

Some of these key concepts are

  1. History of the people: In any good and acceptable constitutional democracy, the constitution must reflect the history of the people, the history of the people must be put into consideration.
  2. Freedom of the press: The press, radio, television, newspaper and other social media are means by which citizens express their views i.e. people are free to write and make reports on governmental issues.
  3. Convention: Constitutional democracy brings out convention through which the government follows, through the conventions skills are acquired and disseminated.
  4. Periodic election: Free and fair election is one of the major key concepts of constitutional democracy because it allows for change in government.
  5. The rights of citizens: another key is the right of citizens; their rights must be respected and protected.
  6. Supremacy of the constitution: Under constitutional democracy, the constitution is supreme and supersedes every other consideration in a constitutional democracy. To learn more, Click here

Week 6

Topic: Human Trafficking


Meaning and Causes of Human Trafficking

Consequences of Human Trafficking

Government and Individual Efforts to stop Human Trafficking

Meaning and Causes of Human Trafficking

Human trafficking can be defined as the act of recruiting, transporting, or receiving a person through force, coercion or through other means for the purpose of exploiting them.

Human trafficking is the trade in humans, most commonly for the purpose of sexual slavery, forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation for the traffickers.

The following points below are causes of human trafficking,

  1. Poverty: This is a situation where a person fall short of a level of economic welfare, where a person lacks the basic human want which are clothing, food and shelter.A person who is poor can easily be deceived to come over to another place with the promise of getting a good job and become a victim in the hands of the traffickers. To learn more, Click here

Week 7

Topic: Revision

Teachers and Students are expected to revise all notes from SS1 in preparation for the WASSCE Examination coming up.

Lesson notes from SS1  First Term Week 1 to SS3 Second Term Week 10 are to be studied and questions given to students for Practice. To learn more, Click here

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top