SS2 Agricultural Science Third Term: Animal Nutrition (II)

Types of Ration Diet and their Uses

Diet – This is defined as the amount of feed regularly given to or consumed by an animal. It is formulated to meet specific metabolic and physiological functions as regards growth, development, lactation, reproduction and egg laying.

Ration – This is the total supply of feed given to an animal in a 24 hr period. This is the amount of food taken by an animal per day.

Balanced ration – This is the feed containing all essential nutrients in the correct quantity and in adequate proportion for feeding animals.

Factors to be Considered When Deciding the Type of Ration to Feed an Animal

  1. Purpose for which the animal is kept for
  2. The class of the animal
  3. Age of the animal
  4. Health condition of the animal
  5. Physiological state of the animal
  6. Management system

Types of Ration

  1. Maintenance Ration – This is the type of ration given to farm animals just to maintain the normal functioning of the body system
  2. Production Ration – This is the type of ration given to farm animals to enable them produce. In other words, production ration supplies nutrient above what is needed for maintenance in order to make animal capable of high production of egg, meat and milk.

Animals that require Production Ration

  • Lactating animals – Milk production
  • Broilers – Rapid growth
  • Weaning animals – Increased growth
  • Pregnant animals – Foetus maintenance
  • Flushing – To produce more ova before mating
  • Fattening animals – Meat production

Ration Formulae

For a ration formulae, the following should be considered

  • Physiological state of the animal
  • Availability of feedstuff
  • Composition of nutrient
  • Taste of the feed
  • Cost of feedstuff
  • Age of animal
  • Familiarity of feed to animals

Functions of Antibiotics

  1. They help the body to fight against disease causing micro-organisms
  2. They improve early growth of poultry, pigs and non-ruminants
  3. They increase absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract
  4. They help to heal sores or wounds in animals

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