Introduction:

Relief of an area refers to the position and character of the highlands and lowlands. The methods of representing such relief on maps include the following:

  1. Contour: are lines drawn to join places of equal heights, level or altitude. The sea level is taken as the starting point in all measurement in metres of feet. The height of a particular point is written in line; Contour Interval in a particular map, contours are equal intervals
  2. Form Lines: are lines drawn on a map like contours but are based on estimators. They are not accurate as contours and they are represented in broken lines
  3. Contour layering: It is an aid to visual impression, the space between contours are often coloured or tinted. Different shapes of colours are used to denote different in height, green is used for lowlands, yellow and brown are for highlands and white is for snow capped peak. Water bodies such as seas are represented with blue and the deeper the sea, the darker the blue colour
  4. Hill shading: it is the method in which only one contour is used but the intensity (thickness) of the colour tone depends on the steepness of the hill slope. That is the deeper the shade representing it becomes
  5. Hatchures: They are e short line drawn down the slope in the direction of the steepest gradient. The steeper the slope, the heavier the lines which are used
  6. Spot heights: They are simply spots or points on the map whose height above the sea level has been accurately measured. The exact height is represented by a dot and the height i written beside it
  7. Trigonometrical stations are simple points on the ground marking the angles of triangulation when mapping an area. They are usually indicated by a triangle and a dot in the middle with the height written beside it. There are three types of trigonometrical station. These are primary, secondary and minor trigonometrical stations
  8. Bench Mark is a permanent mark made on objects like walls, building and bridges. It indicates the actual heights which are usually written on the objects and in most cases, it is written along on the road.

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