English Language SS2 Second Term

Week  6

Contents:

  • Structure: Pronouns (Demonstrative, Interrogative and Possessive)
  • Oral English: /s/, /ts/ – Contrasting Consonants
  • Skill Focus: How to approach summary tasks

A. Structure: Pronouns (Demonstrative, Interrogative and Possessive)

Demonstrative Pronouns

A determiner that points to a particular noun or to the noun it replaces.

There are four demonstratives in English: the “near” demonstratives this and these, and the “far” demonstratives that and those. A demonstrative pronoun distinguishes its antecedent from similar things. We use them to indicate the person, thing or place referred to. When a demonstrative precedes a noun, it is sometimes called a demonstrative adjective.

Examples

This is the boy who took my pen

That is the man whose car was stolen last week

Those are the pins Mr Kadri was looking for

Interrogative Pronouns

A term in traditional grammar for a pronoun that introduces a question.

In English, who, whom, whose, which, and what commonly function as interrogative pronouns. (When immediately followed by a noun,whose, which, and what function as determiners.) Interrogative pronouns are used in asking questions. There are five of them, all of which begin with wh-: who, whom, whose, which, what. Who is used for people while which and what are used for things. These pronouns do not have gender.

Using Who:

Who are you?

Who is at the door?

Using Which:

Which of the bags is yours?

Which do you prefer?

Using Whom:

Whom are you looking for?

Who do you intend to see?

Using Whose:

Whose cat is this?

Who is the subject pronoun while whom is the object pronoun. See the following sentences:

‘Case’ examples:

Subjective case

  • Who took my note?
  • Which do i buy?
  • What caused her illness?

Possessive case

  • Whose dog is barking?
  • Which of the author’s books have you read?
  • What does he want today?

Objective case

  • Whom did you borrow that pencil from?
  • Which pen did you take?
  • What have you planned to do this summer?

Possessive Pronouns

A pronoun that can take the place of a noun phrase to show ownership (as in “This phone is mine“).

The weak possessives (also called possessive determiners) function as adjectives in front of nouns. The weak possessives are my, your, his, her, its, our, and their.

In contrast, the strong (or absolute) possessive pronouns stand on their own: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, and theirs. A possessive pronoun never takes an apostrophe.

The possessive pronouns are the possessive forms of personal pronouns. We use the personal pronouns in the possessive case to express possession. A possessive pronoun is able to stand on its own as subject, object, etc.

Possessive pronouns
Singular Plural
mine ours
yours yours
his theirs
hers theirs

Examples:

The red apple is mine. The green one is yours

His meat is bigger than ours

Possessive pronouns can be used as either subject or object:

  • Yours has green spots. (Subject)
  • Your pencil is sharper than  mine. (Object)

We do not insert an apostrophe in possessive pronouns (especially, yours, hishers, its, ours, theirs) that express ownership.

  • This piece of chicken is yours. (Not: This piece of chicken is your’s.)
  • It is licking its paw. (Not: It is licking it’s paw.)
  • Whose books are these? (Not: Who’s books are these?)

B. Oral English: Sounds /s/ and /ts/

/s/

send, simple, song, system, street, lost, kiss, release

/ts/

pizza, Mozart, Nazi, waltz

Contrasting Consonants

[f] – [v]

feel – veal; ferry – very; fan – van; fast – vast; few – view; fine – vine; focal – vocal;

infest – invest; refuse – reviews; rifle – rival; often [‘ofən] – oven [‘əvən]; off [of] – of [əv];

safe – save; leaf – leave; knife – knives; half – halves; loaf – loaves; shelf – shelves; wolf – wolves;

life (n.) [laif] – lives (n.) [laivz] – live (adj.) [laiv] – live (v.) [liv] – lives (v.) [livz];

[f] – [v]: fine voice; first variant; five visitors; flight vehicle; fade from view; fair visibility; few reviews; fully developed; feel very sad; find Vicky;

[v] – [f]: very funny; every Friday; prevent fighting; invest funds; movie fans; veil of fog; river flow; heavy traffic; vain efforts; love affair; alive and safe;

[sh] – [zh]

mission – vision; expression – explosion; special – casual;

machine [mə’shi:n] – regime [rei’zhi:m], [rə’zhi:m];

rush [rəsh] – mirage [mi’ra:zh]; cache [kæsh] – collage [kə’la:zh];

marsh [ma:rsh] – massage [mə’sa:zh], [‘mæsa:zh];

rash [ræsh] – garage [gə’ra:zh], [‘gærij];

[sh] – [zh]: official decision; special measures; sensual pleasure; ancient treasures;

[zh] – [sh]: casual inspection; usual conditions; visual perception; measure pressure;

[ch] – [j]

cheap – jeep; chin – gin; chest – jest; chunk – junk; chain – Jane; choke – joke;

rich – ridge; batch – badge; match – Madge; search – surge; touch – judge;

[ch] – [j]: cherry jam; cheap jewelry; change jobs; choose the jury; watch strangers; search engine;

[j] – [ch]: just a child; German teacher; gentle touch; jump over a ditch; large branch; huge lunch;

C. Skill Focus: How to approach summary tasks

Some summary texts are not easy. Here is a good way to approach it

1. Survey the article, paying particular attention to such features as:

  • the title
  • the illustrations and any captions
  • the sub-headings

Try to get a good general overview of what the article is about. Do not worry about any words you do not understand.

2. Read the questions and make sure you understand them

3. Read the text. Mark in pencil, or make a note of the lines that seem to you to be particularly relevant to the questions.

4. Draft answers to the questions using your own words as far as possible.

5. Check your answers against the questions and re-draft as necessary.

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