Basic Science JSS 1 Week 4

Topic: Family Health / Nutrition

What is nutrition?

Nutrition is the process by which organisms take in and make use of substances that are necessary for good health such as food and minerals.

In order to achieve and maintain good health, one must have good feeding (Nutritional) habit.

What is food?

Food is a nutritive material which, when taken, provides the body with energy, regulates body functions, repairs body tissues, promotes growth and helps in the regulation of body processes.

Types of Food

There are various types of food items. Examples include cassava, meat, fish, etc.

Examples of food items and their sources are:

Food Item Sources of Food
Cassava Plant
Meat Animals (Cow)
Fish Animal (Fish)
Yam Plant
Cocoyam Plant
Groundnuts Plant (Legume)
Chicken Animal (Bird)

Classes of Food Based on their Nutrients

Nutrients are substances found within foods which nourish the body.

There are six types of food nutrients. These are: carbohydrates, fats and oil, proteins, vitamins, mineral salts and water. The classes of food based on their nutrients are:

Classes of food Uses Examples
Carbohydrate Supplies energy to the body Yam, maize, bread, sugar, etc.
Protein For body building(growth) and repair of worn out tissues Eggs, meat, fish, milk, beans, etc.
Fats & Oil Supply energy to the body Groundnuts, milk, palm oil, etc.
Vitamins Protect the body against diseases Fruits, milk, vegetables, etc.
Mineral Salts For body metabolism, bone and teeth formation Table salt, bones, water, etc.
Water For chemical reactions to take place, temperature regulation, etc. Water

What is Adequate Diet?

An adequate diet is that diet which contains all the food nutrients in their proper proportion.

For good health and growth of the body, the correct combination of these food nutrients in our meal is very important.