English Language SS2

Week 1

Contents:

Oral English: The Falling and Rising Tones

Vocabulary Development: Using Computers

A. Oral English: The Falling and Rising Tone

Intonation is the music of the voice. As we speak, our voices are constantly changing from one pitch to another. Intonation often tells us more about the feelings and attitude of the speaker than the actual words they choose. Below, the word ‘really’ shows the different attitudes through the different tones used, even though the same word is used. The stressed syllable in a tone group with the main pitch glide is called the nucleus, and below are the main nuclear tones of English. Listen and compare them with an American speaker who was asked to express the same emotions.

“This time the film was really good!”

In most statements that we make, there is a tone.

A: I can’t come on ↓TUESday

But different meanings – criticism, defensiveness, tentativeness and many others – can be conveyed by combining a falling with a rising tone. For example:

B: I can’t come on ↓ TUES ↑ day.

As the arrows show, the voice falls on TUES – and rises slightly on – day.

B is trying to say that he/she can come on another day, but may also sound scornful of A, who has suggested Tuesday.

This combination of tones is sometimes called the fallingandrising tone, or simply the fall-rise tone. Here are some more examples:

I can’t ↓  STAND this type of ↑ music. (implying strong criticism)

Don’t give her that present  ↓ ↑ DAY! (implying that A should give it to her another day, but also implying that A’s idea of giving it to  her today is stupid).

B. Vocabulary Development: Using Computers

Skill Focus

Here are some things you can do on a computer

1. Word processing

You can use a computer as a kind of typewriter. Everything you write can be saved and stored inside a computer on the hard disk, you can also print it out or alter it as often as you like. You can write essays, or letters or even books. Your school textbooks were written on a computer.

2. Spreadsheets

You can do accounts on a computer. You can keep a record pf purchases, sales, profit, losses, debts e.t.c and the computer will even do all your calculations for you. This is ideal for business use, large or small; some people even do their own ‘home budgets’ on their personal computers.

3. Databases

You can list and easily retrieve, a mass of information on specially designed ‘database’ programs. For example, you can list the things you have in stock in your shop or warehouse, names and addresses or books and publishers – the possibilities are endless.

4. Engagement Diaries

You can use your computer to keep your appointment dates, meetings, sport fixtures e.t.c

5. Games

You can play various games on your computer.

6. Learning Programs

Many programs and software have now been designed to help students. e.g. accounting software, corel draw, photoshop e.t.c

7. Music

You can store music on your computer and listen to it at your leisure time.

8. Accessing the Internet

Email is now a revolutionary personal communication system for business transactions, in addition by means of internet, you can have direct access to all the latest news and information happening around the world e.g. CNN, BBC, thesheet.ng, punchonline. You can also make use of search engines to visit educational pages like wikipedia, passnownow.com, myenglish grammar, dictionary e.t.c  and you can also do research through the internet.

Register of Computers

Read the passage and answer the questions.

A desktop computer(1)…… consists of a hard drive, a monitor, a keyboard, a printer, and their connections. The (2) …… contain the various (3)…… you can run on your computer. The most common programs used in business are those for (4)…… (writing letters, documents) (5)…… (for budgets and book – keeping), database management programs (for keeping names and addresses of customers), (6)…… programs (for drawing charts), communication programs (for electronic mail), and desktop publishing programs (for producing manuals, catalogues). The operator (7)….. the information which can be (8)…… and (9)….. at a later date. Most businesses nowadays use (10)…… computers, PCs, which are often linked together in a local (11) ….. This is a big change from the days when time had to be rented on a (12)….. computer. Nowadays, these are only used by very large businesses, universities or government departments. The two most popular types of computers currently are those of Hp and Apple (the Macintosh). It was IBM who set the standard for the PC which others imitated. That is why in order to be able to use the widest range of software, a computer has to be IBM(13)….. These days, when seeking employment, it is becoming increasingly necessary for applicants to be computer (14)…….

Options: compatible, system, graphic, iterate, programs, spreadsheets, retrieved, network, software, keys in, saved, personal, mainframe, word processing.

Fill in the gaps with the best and correct answer.

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