What is Immunisation?

Immunization prevents children against diseases. This is the process by which an individual’s immune system becomes fortified against disease causing agents (known as the immunogen). Immunization is done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination. Vaccines against microorganisms that cause diseases can prepare the body’s immune system, thus helping to fight or prevent an infection. It is given to children in infant welfare clinics; immunization centers and hospitals.

Immunisation Schedule

This means the different times when the baby should be given the different types of immunization. The expanded programs on immunization (E.P.I) is a health programme designed to protect children of 0-2 years of age from six killer diseases.

Types of Immunisation

  1. PREVALENT
  • Hepatitis B
  • D.T.P – Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis
  • HIB- Hemophilic Influenza type b
  • Rotavirus (diarrhea and vomiting)
  • Pneumococcal conjugate (pneumonia and Otitis media)
  1. POLIO VACCINE: This is for protection against polio
  2. SMALL POX VACCINE: This is given by injection to protect against small pox
  3. MEASLES VACCINE: This is given by injection to protect against measles. It is given at 9 months
  4. C.G (Bacillus Calmetle Guerin): this protect against tuberculosis. It is given at birth

Common Ailments among Children

  1. COLIC: Is caused by cramps in the intestines of the baby. A baby who has colic cries hard
  2. CONSTIPATION: This involves the passing of hard stool (at long intervals) or not passing it at all. Constipation could be common with bottle fed babies
  3. DIARRHEA: This is a sudden increase in the number of bowel movements, especially if they are loose and watery.
  4. NAPPY RASH: This occurs when a child has rashes in the nappy.
  5. DEHYDRATION – This occurs when a baby occurs  use or lose more fluid than is taken in, and the body doesn’t have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions.

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