SymbolSymbol NameMeaning / definitionExample
=equals signequality5 = 2+3
5 is equal to 2+3
not equal signinequality5 ≠ 4
5 is not equal to 4
approximately equalapproximationsin(0.01) ≈ 0.01,
x ≈ y means x is approximately equal to y
>strict inequalitygreater than5 > 4
5 is greater than 4
<strict inequalityless than4 < 5
4 is less than 5
inequalitygreater than or equal to5 ≥ 4,
x ≥ y means x is greater than or equal to y
inequalityless than or equal to4 ≤ 5,
x ≤ y means x is greater than or equal to y
( )parenthesescalculate expression inside first2 × (3+5) = 16
[ ]bracketscalculate expression inside first[(1+2)×(1+5)] = 18
+plus signaddition1 + 1 = 2
minus signsubtraction2 − 1 = 1
±plus – minusboth plus and minus operations3 ± 5 = 8 and -2
±minus – plusboth minus and plus operations3 ± 5 = -2 and 8
*asteriskmultiplication2 * 3 = 6
×times signmultiplication2 × 3 = 6
·multiplication dotmultiplication2 · 3 = 6
÷division sign / obelusdivision6 ÷ 2 = 3
/division slashdivision6 / 2 = 3
horizontal linedivision / fraction
modmoduloremainder calculation7 mod 2 = 1
.perioddecimal point, decimal separator2.56 = 2+56/100
abpowerexponent23 = 8
a^bcaretexponent2 ^ 3 = 8
asquare roota · a  = a√9 = ±3
3acube root3a · 3√a  · 3√a  = a3√8 = 2
4afourth root4a · 4√a  · 4√a  · 4√a  = a4√16 = ±2
nan-th root (radical)for n=3, n√8 = 2
%percent1% = 1/10010% × 30 = 3
per-mille1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1%10‰ × 30 = 0.3
ppmper-million1ppm = 1/100000010ppm × 30 = 0.0003
ppbper-billion1ppb = 1/100000000010ppb × 30 = 3×10-7
pptper-trillion1ppt = 10-1210ppt × 30 = 3×10-10

MS2